Presentation on theme: "KINESIOLOGY دکترامیر هوشنگ واحدی متخصص طب فیزیکی و توانبخشی قسمت 1."— Presentation transcript:
KINESIOLOGY دکترامیر هوشنگ واحدی متخصص طب فیزیکی و توانبخشی قسمت 1
REFERENCES 1.CLINICAL KINESIOLOGY and ANATOMY BY Lynn S. Lippert 2.KINESIOLOGY of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM BY DONALD A. NEUMANN, PT, PHD 3. KINANTHROPOMETRY AND EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY LABORATORY MANUAL by Roger Eston and Thomas Reilly 4.Fundamentals of Biomechanics BY Duane Knudson 5.Kin anthropometry IV by William Duquet 6.KINESIOLOGY BY oatis 7.BIOMECHANICAL EVALUATION OF MOVEMENT IN SPORT AND EXERCISE by Carl J. Payton and Roger M. Bartlett 8.Therapeutic Exercise Foundations and Techniques by Carolyn Kisner
Contents Terms & Concepts Introduction Foundational Concepts Exercise Terminology Kinetic Chains Muscle performance Resistance Exercise Types of muscle contraction Muscle Action Terminology Center of Gravity Biomechanical Principles Muscle & Joint & Bone Structure and Function
Terms & Concepts
What is Kinesiology ? ki·ne·si·ol·o·gy n. [Greek kinesis, movement; -logy, science of.] The study of the anatomy, physiology, and mechanics of body movement, especially in humans. -American Heritage Dictionary The branch of physiology that studies the mechanics and anatomy in relation to human movement -Merriam-Webster’s Medical Dictionary The study of muscular movement, especially the mechanics of human motion. - Stedman's Medical Dictionary
The major academic sub disciplines or sciences of kinesiology.
Statics -------- factors associated with nonmoving, or nearly nonmoving systems. Dynamics------- involves factors associated with moving systems Dynamics can be divided into kinetics and kinematics
Kinematics ： a branch of mechanics that describes the position and motion of a body in space displacement velocity acceleration Kinetics ： a branch of mechanics that concerns with forces that produce, arrest, and modify motions of a body or bodies Kinematics can be divided into osteokinematics and arthrokinematics
Osteokinematics (movements between 2 bony segments ) Osteokinematic motion - resulting motion of bones relative to 3 cardinal planes ion Arthrokinematics (movements between 2 articular surfaces) motion between articular surfaces deals with the manner in which adjoining joint surfaces move in relation to each other, that is, in the same or opposite direction.
Is shoulder flexion and extension an arthrokinematic or osteokinematic type of motion? Osteokinematic. Is shoulder distraction an arthrokinematic or osteokinematic type of motion? Arthrokinematic
Kinetic Chains closed kinetic chain requires that the distal segment is fixed (closed) and the proximal segment(s) moves open kinetic chain requires that the proximal segment is fixed (closed) and the distal segment(s) moves
A. Leg press exercise apparatus for strengthening hip and knee extensor muscles B. Free weight boot for strengthening knee extensor muscles.
Closed or Open Kinematic Chains?
Exercise Mode CharacteristicsAdvantagesDisadvantages Open kinematic chain I. Single muscle group 2. Single axis and plane 3. Emphasizes concentric contraction 4. Non-weight-bearing I. Isolated recruitment 2. Simple movement pattern 3. Isolated recruitment 4. Minimal joint compression I. Limited function 2. Limited function 3. Limited eccentrics 4. Less proprioception and joint stability with increased joint shear force Closed kinematic chain I. Multiple muscle groups 2. Multiple axes and planes 3. Balance of concentric and eccentric contractions 4. Weight-bearing exercise I. Functional recruitment 2. Functional movement patterns 3. Functional contractions 4. Increase proprioception and joint stability I. Difficult to isolate 2. More complex 3. Loss of control of target joint 4. Compressive forces on articular surfaces
Identify the following in terms of open or closed kinetic chain activities: A.Wheelchair push-ups: B.Closed-chain activity. C. Overhead wall pulleys : D.Open-chain activity. E. Manual muscle testing: F.Open-chain activity. G.The treadmill : H.combination of open- and closed chain exercise.
Muscle performance The capacity of muscle to produce tension and do physical work. The key elements of muscle performance are o Strength o Power o Endurance.
Resistance Exercise Resistance exercise is any form of active exercise in which a dynamic or static muscle contraction is resisted by an outside force, applied either manually or mechanically.
Muscle strength Strengthening exercise (strength training) a muscle or muscle group lifting, lowering, or controlling heavy loads (resistance) low number of repetitions short period of time.
Muscle power The power is the rate 'of performing work. The rate at which a muscle contracts and produces a resultant force and the relationship of force and velocity are both factors that affect muscle power. rapid movements in appropriate planes light weights ballistic activities anaerobic power aerobic power
Endurance exercise (endurance training) The key elements low intensity muscle contraction (generate and sustain tension ) High repetitions (repeatedly against a load ) prolonged time period The term aerobic power is sometimes used interchangeably with muscle endurance.
Cardio respiratory endurance (total body endurance) is associated with repetitive, dynamic motor activities such as walking, cycling, swimming, or upper extremity aerometry that involve the use of the large muscles of the body
Concentric Contractions 1. Muscle attachments move closer together. 2. Movement is usually occurring against gravity (a “raising” motion). 3. It is an acceleration activity
Eccentric Contractions 1. Muscle attachments move farther apart. 2. Movement usually occurs with gravity (a “lowering” motion). 3. The contraction is used with a deceleration activity
Types based on changes in length concentric contraction (shortening contraction) · isometric contraction (static contraction) eccentric contraction (lengthening contraction)
Use different verbal commands to facilitate isometric contraction, tell the patient to "Hold" or "Don't let me move you" or "Match my resistance.“ concentric contraction, tell the patient to "Push" or "Pull.“ eccentric contraction, tell the patient to "Slowly let go as I push or pull you."
SSitting with a weight in your hand, forearm pronated, elbow extended, and shoulder medially rotated, slowly raise your hand out to the side and upward. a.What is the joint motion at the shoulder? Shoulder abduction b. Is an isometric, concentric, or eccentric muscle contraction occurring at the shoulder? Concentric. c. What type of muscle contraction is occurring at the elbow? Isometric
Muscle Action Terminology A.Agonist – muscle or muscle group that is most directly related to the initiation and execution of a particular movement B.Antagonist – muscle or muscle group that is considered to have the opposite action of a particular agonist C.Synergist – two or more muscle that cooperate to execute a particular movement D.Stabilizer – a muscle or muscle group that functions to support or stabilize while the agonist executes a movement E.Neutralizer – a muscle or muscle group that counteracts unwanted motion at the joint on which the agonist or synergists are attempting to execute a movement – EXAMPLE: Gluteus Maximus – Agonist of hip extension Hamstrings – Synergists Core – Stabilizers Gluteus Medius & Hip Adductors - Neutralizers
CENTER OF GRAVITY o LINE OF GRAVITY o BASE OF SUPPORT GROUND REACTION FORCE o GROUND FORCE VECTOR o CENTER OF PRESSURE
Center of gravity (COG) Center of gravity (COG) is the balance point of an object at which torque on all sides is equal.
center of mass (COM): the weighed average of the center of mass of each body segments center of gravity (COG): the vertical projection of the COM to the ground Center of gravity (COG)—located 5 cm anterior to second sacral vertebra. The COG is displaced 5 cm (< 2 in.) horizontally and 5 cm vertically during an average adult male step
Base of support (BOS) is that part of a body that is in contact with the supporting surface. Line of gravity (LOG) is an imaginary vertical line passing through the COG toward the center of the earth
equilibrium There are basically three states of equilibrium Stable equilibrium a person lying flat on the floor. Unstable equilibrium a person standing on one leg Neutral equilibrium a ball.
GROUND FORCE VECTOR Gravitational force is always directed vertically downward toward the center of the earth.