Presentation on theme: "What are properties of matter?. I. Elements- basic building blocks of matter A. Properties of Elements 1. Chemical properties- describes how a material."— Presentation transcript:
What are properties of matter?
I. Elements- basic building blocks of matter A. Properties of Elements 1. Chemical properties- describes how a material changes into other materials 2. Physical properties- measured without changing materials a. Color b. odor c. volume – the amount of space that an object takes up (LxWxH) (using a ruler or graduated cylinder) d. weight- measure of the pull of gravity on an object (using a scale) e. mass- the amount of matter in an object (using a balance) f. density- the measure of the amount of matter in a given volume (M divided by V = D)
How do atoms combine?
I. Atom- smallest particles of an element A. Each atom contains: 1. Inside the nucleus a. neutrons-no electrical charge b. protons- positive charge 2. Outside of the nucleus a. electrons- negative charge
II. Periodic Table- where elements are organized A. arranged in each row according to the number of protons B. every element has a symbol of one, two or three letters; the first letter is capitalized C. elements in each column have similar chemical properties
III. Combination of Atom A. Molecules- made of combined atoms B. Compounds- made of combination of elements 1. Some compounds share electrons; electrons go around both atoms 2. Salts – do not share electrons; are held together by opposite charges
a. particles with fewer electrons will have a negative charge b. at least one metal element and one nonmetal element c. salt forms crystals when charge particles make geometric patterns C. Chemical Formula 1. shows how many atoms of each element are in the compound a. H 2 O = water compound
How do phase changes occur?
I.Solids A.Definite shape B.Definite volume C.Particles are close together D.Vibrate in place II. Liquids A. No definite shape B. Definite volume C. Particles are farther apart than solids D. Particles move faster than solids
III. Gas A. No definite shape B. No definite volume C. Particles farther apart than solids and liquids D. Particles move faster than solids and liquids Condensation (Cooling it down) Gas Liquid Evaporation (Heating it up) Liquid Gas
What are mixtures and solutions?
I.Mixtures- can be separated by using different physical properities A. magnet can separate iron filling from sand B. screen filter can separate a mixture of pebbles and sand II. Solution- special mixture in which substances are spread out evenly and will not settle A. solute- the substance that dissolves (sugar) B. solvent- the substance in which the solute is being dissolved (water)
III. Solubility- how much of a substance can be dissolved by a solvent at a certain temperature A. hotter temperature-more solute can be dissolved B. Saturated-all the solute that can be dissolved (Dark) C. Concentrated- has a large amount of solute compared to solvent (Middle) D. Dilute- has the littlest amount of solute (Light)