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By Bryan Burton, Conner Weaver, and Kaleb Spencer.

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1 By Bryan Burton, Conner Weaver, and Kaleb Spencer.

2  Through this journey, we will be visiting the beginning of the Jovian section of the Solar System. This section starts at the Asteroid Belt. Jupiter and Saturn are the first on this trip. We will be explaining many aspects of each, such as their importance to the Solar System, their composition, and even their extent of the ability to support life.

3 The planet Jupiter, or Jove, is named after the Roman King of Gods, Jove. This is also the reason that the outer planets past the Asteroid Belt are called the Jovian Planets. pxa9lpvo

4 The planet Saturn is named after the God of Agriculture and Harvest. He is the son of Terra and the father of Jupiter. 9D9CzwPQU

5 

6 Jupiter orbits very slowly around the Sun. A complete orbit would take 11.86 Earth Years to complete. Despite this slow orbit, it is the fastest rotating body in our Solar System, making a full rotation every 9 hours, 50 minutes, and 30 seconds. Saturn orbits even slower. It would take nearly 30 Earth Years for a complete orbit around the sun. As for its rotation, Saturn is nearly immeasurable, due to variations caused by its moons’ geyser activity interrupting radio emissions. The last recorded speed from the Cassini, Voyager and Pioneer in March 2007 was a rotation time of 10 Hours, 32 Minutes, and 35 seconds.

7  Jupiter is the biggest planetary body in our Solar System. This has been speculated to have been caused by Condensation of many comets and asteroids before it was today. It was just out of the affect of most of the sons stronger gravity, leaving it to gain much more mass for itself, and most likely attracted even more building material due to it’s gravity after being built upon. It now has a mass of 1.8986×10 27 kg, about 317.8 Earths. It is about 70% of the total mass of all the other planets in our Solar System.

8 Saturn is the second largest planetary body in our Solar System. It’s expected to have gained its size through the same method as Jupiter, gaining just enough resistance to avoid being pulled into Jupiter itself. Saturn has a mass of 5.6846×10 26 kg, or 95.152 Earths.

9  The atmosphere of Jupiter consists of about 84 percent Hydrogen and about 15 percent helium, with small amounts of acetylene, ammonia, ethane, methane, phosphine, and water vapor. This is so thick that the surface of Jupiter is non-visible from our side of the atmosphere.  Since most of the gas on Jupiter’s surface is methane, it would be exremely difficult to breathe without plenty of oxygen.  Its atmospheric pressure is about 20–200 kPa (Pascals), (with Earth’s being about 103), about twice as much pressure as Earth’s. Your bones would be crushed moments before even landing on the surface. er_Belt_System.svg

10 Jupiter’s gravitational force is extremely strong, due to its 1.326 g/cm 3 density. (Second highest density of the Gas Giants, but lower than the terrestrials.) If you were to step foot on Jupiter without being crushed, if you weigh about 100 lbs, you would way about 264 lbs. Might want to take a salad with you to keep up your self-esteem.

11 The outer atmosphere of Saturn contains 96.3% molecular hydrogen and 3.25% helium. We don’t know how many elements are present that are heavier than helium, but the total mass of these heavier elements is estimated to be 19– 31 times the mass of the Earth, with most of it being located in Saturn's core. It’s atmospheric pressure would have about the same effect on you as Jupiter’s.

12  Saturn has a density of 0.687 grams/cubic centimeter, 1/8 of Earth’s and less than Water’s density. It would float in a pool, if you could find one about the size of his son.  It’s volume, however, makes it far more massive than Earth. A 100lb person would weigh 116lbs on Saturn, provided you can still feel your limbs before frostbite.

13 Jupiter’s temperature is about 22 times Earth’s normal standards, at a temperature of 153 °C. (307.4 degrees Fahrenheit). As you move towards its core, it reaches a temperature of about 64,300 degrees Fahrenheit. Jupiter could have been a star, but needed about 60 times more mass than it has.

14 Saturn’s temperature is around 190-270K (-288 degrees Fahrenheit) at its higher layers, and increases as you head towards its solid core, which would not be a great idea, considering that, by the time you reach a landable surface, it is too late to turn back as you plummet into a core made of iron, nickel, rock, and metallic hydrogen with temperatures reaching 21,092 degrees Fahrenheit.


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19 apod/ap961018.html Jupiter’s moon Io's volcanoes release particles, some of which become ionized, trapped by Jupiter's magnetic field, and rain down on the gas giant. The resulting auroral displays may be thousands of times brighter than any auroral display on Earth, and involve unusual spots.

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21 It36-whc Shoemaker-Levy 9, a comet, made it’s way towards Jupiter as several pieces of one comet that was broken up during its orbit near Jupiter. This brought to light the likely possibility that Jupiter has been “sweeping” up the universe of the potentially lethal (To Earth) Debris.

22  Jupiter’s gravity has been used to launch spacecraft farther into the Jovians and on its way to Pluto. /653-new-jupiter-fly-by-video.htm

23  In 1973 and 74, Pioneer 10 and 11 were the first two spacecraft to make fly-by observations of Jupiter. These two helped engineers understand what traits a spacecraft needed to orbit and cope with Jupiter.  In 1979, the Voyager probes discovered Jupiter's ring, observed intricate vortices in its atmosphere, observed active volcanoes on Io, a process analogous to plate tectonics on Ganymede, and numerous craters on Callisto.  On February 8, 1992, the Ulysses solar probe flew past Jupiter's north pole at a distance of 451,000 km. This swing-by maneuver was required for Ulysses to attain a very high- inclination orbit around the Sun, increasing its inclination to the ecliptic to 80.2 degrees. The giant planet's gravity bent the spacecraft's flight path downward and away from the ecliptic plane, placing it into a final orbit around the Sun's north and south poles.  In 2000, the Cassini probe flew by Jupiter on its way to Saturn and made the highest resolution pictures of Jupiter yet, which gave scientists access to details needed for scientific calculations about the planet. This probe discovered the belt/zone system on Jupiter.  The New Horizons probe made a gravity assist fly-by on Jupiter while heading towards Pluto. It collected data of Jupiter, but much of it was lost when it experienced a data error and rebooted, losing significant amounts of data.  Galileo, the only space probe to orbit Jupiter, began its orbit in 1995. It orbited for 7 years, 35 orbits, and was sent into Jupiter to crash. This is also the probe that witnessed Levy-Shoemaker 9 impacting on Jupiter, as wells as gathered large amounts of data of the Galilean moons.

24  Saturn generates 2.5 times the energy it receives from the sun. Most of the energy is made through the Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism of gravity compression, but may include another system of “rain” of helium emitting form its core, releasing heat as the droplets cause friction and leave the outer layers completely depleted.

25  Contrary to typical Magnetosphere conditions, Saturn has a rock solid core with ice, yet still produces a Magnetic Field. This is made psosible by the layer of circulating liquid metallic hydrogen. The outer layers, however, are created by plasma that mostly originates from the moon Enceladus, which generates 1000 kg/s of water vapor that co- rotates with the field.

26  In the 17 th -19 th centuries, Saturn was observed to have rings around it. Galileo saw these as 2 moons, but it was later discovered by Christian Huygens. Giovanni Cassini found four other moons later on. Slowly, moons were discovered farther and farther from Saturn, and even satellites around the rings.  Pioneer 11 made the first fly-by of Saturn in 1979, Images were taken of the planet and a few of its moons, although their resolution was too low to discern surface detail. The spacecraft also studied Saturn's rings, revealing the thin F- ring and the fact that dark gaps in the rings are bright when viewed at high phase angle (towards the sun), meaning that they contain fine light- scattering material.  In 1980, Voyager 1 sent back the first high-resolution images, revealing surface details. No details were seen on Titan’s surface, since its atmosphere is impenetrable by wavelengths. A year later, Voyager 2 managed to get more images while approaching, but the camera platform got stuck, ruining the planned image collection. It used Saturn’s gravity to make its way towards Uranus.  In 2004, the Cassini–Huygens space probe performed the SOI (Saturn Orbit Insertion) maneuver and entered into orbit around Saturn. In June 2004, it had conducted a close flyby of Phoebe, a satellite that orbits around Saturn over a period of one year with a retrograde motion, sending back high-resolution images and data. Over the years, Cassini found 8 satellites, radar images of large lakes and their coastlines with numerous islands and mountains on Titan, and even obtaining data from the moon Enceladus, making it the “most habitable spot beyond Earth in the Solar System for life as we know it.” This probe is now on a mission lasting until 2017, tracking the seasons of Saturn.

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