2Colony Groups Southern Chesapeake Middle Northern (New England) GeorgiaSouth CarolinaNorth CarolinaChesapeakeVirginiaMarylandMiddleNew JerseyPennsylvaniaNew YorkDelawareNorthern (New England)Massachusetts BayConnecticutRhode IslandNew Hampshire
3The Unhealthy Chesapeake Life in the Chesapeake = difficultDiseaseFew females and familiesLife expectancy 20 years less than New England colonistsMen – 48 yearsWomen – 44 yearsFirst colonial government: House of BurgessesFirst order of business: set price for tobaccoBicameral by 1650sFirst representative government in New WorldEconomy based on farming tobaccoSupply and demandSo dependent on tobacco that 50 year recession occurred when price droppedHeadright system led to plantations
4Bacon’s Rebellion Nathaniel Bacon Indian conflict Berkley’s plan VA, Indians, 40,000 whites around themwestern frontier Indians pushed further westBerkley’s planexpensive chain of frontier forts
5Bacon’s Rebellion (cont.) Bacon, popular, finally granted permission to strike any Indians leaving their villages w/o permissionSummarycaused by tobacco depression, low availability of land, social stratificationavailability of Indian land made them easy targetsResultsome see class conflict as due to indentured servantsfirst Africans to Jamestown, racially discriminated against, but not all sold as slaves
6The Peculiar Institution Practiced for centuries in most societiesGenerally war prisoners, non-believers of the religion of their conquerors, and poor people who indentured themselves to get out of debtSlavery in the Americas differed from earlier formsAttempts to enslave Native Americans failed for both Spanish and BritishMoneyIndentured servants were cheaper, but not cost effective in the long runSlaves more expensive initially, but more cost effective over timeWhy Africans?
7New England Life Community life Relatively long lives Children Central commons, open grazingMeetinghouse central, house/lots nearbyClose settled, social reciprocity conducivePuritan familiesmale dominantwife subject to husbandRelatively long livesChildrensubject to Father’s controlthe “little commonwealth”
8Chesapeake Life First Families 1636-60 1660s and beyond Maryland Early gentry return to England (life too hard)Hard to find Social elite willing to servemiddle class entrepreneurs gain powerdominate Governor’s council, accumulate land, wealth, power1660s and beyond“Planter Class” emergesMarylandWomenslow population growth
9Back to Basics Demographic Differences Race, Ethnicity, Economy Farther North = less diverseFarther South = more diverseReligion and EducationPiety, public support for clergy, literacy, education, and moral standards stronger from South to North
10Bridget Bishop — hanged June 10, 1692 George Jacobs, Sr. — hanged August 19, 1692Margaret Scott — hanged September 22, 1692The Rev. George Burroughs — hanged August 19, 1692Susannah Martin — hanged June 19, 1692Samuel Wardwell — hanged September 22, 1692Martha Carrier — hanged August 19, 1692Rebecca Nurse — hanged June 19, 1692Sarah Wildes — hanged June 19, 1692Martha Corey — hanged September 22, 1692Alice Parker — hanged September 22, 1692John Willard — hanged August 19, 1692Giles Corey — pressed to death September 19, 1692Mary Parker — hanged September 22, 1692Mary Easty — hanged September 22, 1692John Proctor — hanged August 19, 1692Sarah Good — hanged June 19, 1692Ann Pudeator — hanged September 22, 1692Elizabeth Howe — hanged June 19, 1692Wilmott Redd — hanged September 22, 1692
12The Salem Witch TrialsCharges of witchcraft levied by (usually) young girlsWealthyPortersconvenient targetsAccusersmany Putnam family membersusually (2/3 of all accusers) yr old females who had lost relatives to Indians, were now domestic servants
13The Case of Giles Corey Accused of being wizard, did not enter a plea Convicted of witchcraftsentenced to die by “peine forte et dure”Never entered a pleaDied 2 days later
14ExplanationsVarious causes for the “hysteria” developed by historians and scholarsno concrete explanation has been agreed uponMajor theories:Puritans strong beliefs led to mass hysteriaChild abuse caused itMass consumption of a hallucinogenic fungusFrequent Indian attacks put everyone on edge
15The Results Many residents left before they could be accused Doubt of trialsLocal economy sufferscrops and livestock went untendedcommerce suffered as many stopped business to watch trials and hangingsLoss of influence“Innocent until proven guilty”Reflected growing economic gap, social gapClash of values (agricultural vs. trade)
16I know the basics, but am fuzzy on the details. Essential Question: What are the political, social, and economic similarities and differences between the American colonies?3I can use specific examples and could probably teach someone else about this.2I know the basics, but am fuzzy on the details.1I know a couple of things about it but couldn't really tell you much.Why is my desk wet?