Vocabulary: 1. Chain Migration 2. Pull Factors 3. Asylum 4. Remittances 5. Migrant Labor 6. Intervening opportunity 7. Islands of Development 8. Laws of Migration 9. Periodic Movement 10. Voluntary Migration 11. Forced Migration 12. Colonization 13. Distance Decay 14. Nomadism 15. Gravity Model 16. International refugees 17. Selective Migration 18. Cyclic Movement 19. Migration 20. Step Migration 21. Transhumance
I. Migration A. Definition…The long-term or permanent relocation of an individual or group from one place to another. 1. This is different than Circulation…the temporary, often cyclical, relocation of an individual or group from one place to another. a. Ex: student going to college, then returning in summer B. Net Migration = Number of immigrants – Number of emigrants 1. Net migration accounts for changes to the population of a location (state, province, country or region) as a result of immigration and emigration. Demographic Equation: Computes population change in a region 2014 Population = 2013 Population + (Births – Deaths) + Net Migration Rate of Natural Increase
C. Three Types of Human Movement Cyclic Movement 1. Cyclic Movement…movement away from your home for a short period of time…often leaving and returning in the same day a. Commuting – the journey from home to work and home again b. Seasonal Movement – “Snowbirds”… People who leave the north every fall for the sunbelt states. c. Nomadism – Movement from place to place as a matter of survival, culture and tradition…common in some parts of Africa and Asia. Activity Space: The area within which people move freely on their rounds of regular activity
Periodic Movement 2. Periodic Movement…Movement away from home for a longer period of time a. Migrant Labor b. Transhumance – a system of pastoral farming where ranchers move livestock according to the seasonal availability of pastures c. Military Service Circular migration Circular migration – A type of temporary migration. – Associated with agricultural work. – The migrant follows the harvest of various crops, moving from one place to another each time. – Very common in the US Southwest (Mexican farm workers) and in Western Europe (Eastern European farm workers). Fall / Winter Spring Summer
3. Migration a. International (Transnational) Migration – Movement across borders…usually a permanent move. --Emigration is an indicator of economic and/or social failures a society. --Crossing of a national boundary. --Easier to control and monitor. --Laws to control and/or inhibit these movements. --2 million and 3 million people emigrate each year. --In 1995, 125 million people lived outside their home country. Before World War I --Open policy. --Many countries welcomed immigrants as a source of labor. --Most migration was from developed to developing countries. The 1920s and 1930s --Closing the doors...Years of economic depression. --Deportation of immigrants.
International Migration Little Haiti, Miami, Florida
b. Internal Migration – Migration that occurs within a single country’s borders with a degree of permanence. Internal Migration – Within one country. – Crossing domestic jurisdictional boundaries. – Movements between states or provinces. – Little government control. – Factors: Employment-based. Retirement-based. Education-based. Civil conflicts (internally displaced population).
II. Reasons People Migrate Forced Migration A. Forced Migration – When a person, group, government, or other entity insists that another individual or group must relocate. Also when a factor or condition (disease or famine) outside the control of the migrating group pushes them out. 1. Countermigration – governments detain migrants who enter or attempt to enter their countries illegally and return the migrants to their home countries.
Voluntary Migration B. Voluntary Migration – Human migration in which the movers respond to perceived opportunity, not force. 1. The migrant makes the decision to move…most migration is voluntary. 2. Types of Voluntary Migration a. Step migration…When a migrant follows a series of stages, or steps, toward a final destination. Ex: Rural area to a small town…later from the small town to a bigger city. --Intervening opportunity…At one of the steps along the path, pull factors encourage the migrant to settle there before they reach their original destination. b. Chain migration…Further migration to a place where friends or relatives have already settled…then communicating back to others about the new place.
Ernst Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration Proposed Laws of Migration: 1. Every migration flow generates countermigration…when one group moves into an area, another group often moves out. For example, immigrants to the U.S. often settled in the cheapest housing; as they did better, they moved out and a newer group of migrants would move in. 2. The majority of migrants move a short distance…see “Distance Decay” on the next slide. However, since Ravenstein’s day, transportation & communication have improved. 3. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations…usually from rural areas to urban areas. 4. Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas. Older people are also less likely to migrate. 5. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults, and most international migrants are young males.
Distance decay: Distance decay: The principle that the farther one moves from a cultural hearth, the less present that culture is on the landscape. The farther that one moves from one’s homeland, the less likely one is to hold onto one’s cultural ways…eventually one will be assimilated into the new country’s culture Gravity Model: 1. Predicts interaction between places on the basis of their population size and distance between them. Population is more important. Distance is not really a factor if the population is high in both cities being compared. 2. Assumes that spatial interaction (such as migration) is directly related to the populations and inversely related to the distance between them
C. Push and Pull Factors of Migration Push Factors 1. Push Factors – Unfavorable conditions or attributes that encourage migration from the place they live in. Pull Factors 2. Pull Factors – Favorable conditions or attributes of a place that attract migrants. D. Types of Push and Pull Factors 1. Legal status…Migrants can arrive in a country with (legally) or without (illegally) consent of the host country. a. Main question is how do they arrive in the new country? 2. Economic conditions…Poverty has driven countless millions from their homelands…job opportunities (or perceived opportunities) in other places pull them to migrate. a. Examples: Farmers pushed off their land by drought, invasion, or landlords; Industrial growth in a city. b. They exist on all scales from local to global. People move between continents, countries, regions or within cities.
4. Cultural Factors…People who fear that their culture and traditions will not survive a major political transition, and who are able to migrate to places they perceive as safer, will often do so. a. Cultural “Push” Factors --Change in politics or governmental control Ex: Those leaving Afghanistan after the Soviet Union invaded in 1979. --Religious persecution Ex: Palestinians leaving Israel after the country was created in 1948. Ex: Muslims migrating from India to the new country of Pakistan and Hindus migrating from Pakistan back to India when India & Pakistan split in 1947. b. Cultural “Pull” Factors…Many came to America because of our democratic government. Refugees: People who have been forced to migrate from their homes and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their religion, race, nationality, or political opinions.
5. Environmental Push and Pull Factors a. Climate…either moving to a pleasant climate (the beach) or away from a harsh climate (extreme cold or heat, drought) b. Seacoasts…This is the tendency for people to settle on or near the sea…it’s most striking in Eurasia, Australia, and South America --Ex: In Australia, half the total population lives in just five port cities, and most everyone else lives in nearby coastal areas. c. Disease…on animals, humans, or crops. --Areas of heavy malaria cause humans to move. --The 1840s potato famine in Ireland caused people to move. d. Crises…Earthquakes, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions --Ex: Migrants leaving after Hurricane Katrina Intervening Obstacles: Physical features that halt or slow migration from one place to another. Ex: People moving westward in the U.S. ran into the Rocky Mountains.
Push FactorsPull Factors FamineBetter Jobs WarLower Taxes Lack of jobsNicer Climate DiseaseBetter schools ViolenceMore room High crimeLow crime OvercrowdingBetter Medical Care
III. Where Do People Migrate? A. Out-Migration – When more people emigrate from a place than immigrate to it. 1. Asia, Latin America, and Africa fall into this category. B. In-Migration – When more people immigrate to a place than emigrate from it. 1. North America, Europe, and Oceania (Australia, New Zealand and the South Sea Islands) fall into this category. 1. People are migrating from less developed to more developed countries. 2. People leave countries with few jobs to those with more jobs. Ellis Island National Monument
International Migration Routes The Largest Current Migration Flows Include: 1. Asia to Europe 2. Asia to North America 3. South America to North America