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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 16 Galaxies and Dark Matter.

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1 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 16 Galaxies and Dark Matter

2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 16 Galaxies and Dark Matter UGC Mly (150 Mpc)

3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Units of Chapter 16 Dark Matter in the Universe Galaxy Collisions Galaxy Formation and Evolution Black Holes and Active Galaxies The Universe on Very Large Scales

4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. a) as it was when the universe was 1 billion years old. b) as it will be 1 billion years from now. c) as it was 1 billion years ago. d) as it is today, but redshifted 10 percent of the speed of light. e) as it was just after the Big Bang. Question 1 A galaxy seen 1 billion light-years away means we see it

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. a) as it was when the universe was 1 billion years old. b) as it will be 1 billion years from now. c) as it was 1 billion years ago. d) as it is today, but redshifted 10 percent of the speed of light. e) as it was just after the Big Bang. Question 1 A galaxy seen 1 billion light-years away means we see it Looking farther away in space means looking back further in time, to when the object (and universe) was younger.

6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Sloan Digital Sky Survey SDSS

7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Other galaxies have rotation curves similar to ours, allowing measurement of their mass. Dark Matter in the Universe

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Another way to measure the average mass of galaxies in a cluster is to calculate how much mass is required to keep the cluster gravitationally bound. Dark Matter in the Universe

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Galaxy mass measurements show that galaxies need between 3 and 10 times more mass than can be observed to explain their rotation curves. The discrepancy is even larger in galaxy clusters, which need 10 to 100 times more mass. The total needed is more than the sum of the dark matter associated with each galaxy. Dark Matter in the Universe

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. There is evidence for intracluster superhot gas (about 10 million K) throughout clusters, densest in the center. Dark Matter in the Universe

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. This head–tail radio galaxy’s lobes are being swept back, probably because of collisions with intracluster gas. Dark Matter in the Universe

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. It is believed this gas is primordial – dating from the very early days of the universe. There is not nearly enough of it to be the needed dark matter in galaxy clusters. Dark Matter in the Universe

13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. a) makes up about 90 percent of the matter in the universe. b) is best detected by the largest optical telescopes. c) makes up about 10 percent of the matter in clusters of galaxies. d) exists but has no observable effects on galaxies. e) is the result of gas and dust. Question 2 Based on galactic rotation curves and motions in clusters of galaxies, dark matter

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. a) makes up about 90 percent of the matter in the universe. b) is best detected by the largest optical telescopes. c) makes up about 10 percent of the matter in clusters of galaxies. d) exists but has no observable effects on galaxies. e) is the result of gas and dust. Question 2 Based on galactic rotation curves and motions in clusters of galaxies, dark matter

15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The separation between galaxies is usually not large compared to the size of the galaxies themselves, and galactic collisions are frequent. The “cartwheel” galaxy on the left appears to be the result of a head-on collision with another galaxy, perhaps one of those on the right. Galaxy Collisions

16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. a) globular cluster stars. b) giant molecular clouds. c) central bulge stars. d) open clusters. e) disk stars. Question 3 When spiral galaxies collide, the greatest impact occurs on their

17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. a) globular cluster stars. b) giant molecular clouds. c) central bulge stars. d) open clusters. e) disk stars. Question 3 When spiral galaxies collide, the greatest impact occurs on their

18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. This galaxy collision has led to bursts of star formation in both galaxies; ultimately they will probably merge. Galaxy Collisions

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. a) are much rarer than collisions between stars. b) can transform elliptical galaxies into spirals. c) trigger Type II supernova explosions in the halo. d) cause gas and dust clouds to collide, leading to rapid star formation. Question 4 Collisions between galaxies

20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. a) are much rarer than collisions between stars. b) can transform elliptical galaxies into spirals. c) trigger Type II supernova explosions in the halo. d) cause gas and dust clouds to collide, leading to rapid star formation. Question 4 Collisions between galaxies Galaxies are relatively close compared with their size. In clusters of galaxies, collisions clearly occur.

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Antennae galaxies collided fairly recently, sparking stellar formation. The plot on the right is the result of a computer simulation of this kind of collision. Galaxy Collisions Galaxy Collision

22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Question 5 a) giant ellipticals b) irregulars c) spirals d) active galaxies e) radio galaxies Due to the density and collisions among galaxies, ___________ are rare in the centers of clusters.

23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. a) giant ellipticals b) irregulars c) spirals d) active galaxies e) radio galaxies Question 5 Due to the density and collisions among galaxies, ___________ are rare in the centers of clusters. The gas, dust, and disks of spiral galaxies are tidally disrupted, and even destroyed, in the centers of dense clusters, which are often dominated by giant elliptical galaxies.

24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Galaxies are believed to have formed from mergers of smaller galaxies and star clusters. Image (c) shows large star clusters found some 5000 Mpc away. They may be precursors to a galaxy. Galaxy Formation and Evolution

25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. This Hubble Deep Field view shows some extremely distant galaxies. The most distant appear irregular, supporting the theory of galaxy formation by merger. Galaxy Formation and Evolution Hubble 1 Hubble 2

26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Each of these starburst galaxies exhibits massive star formation in the wake of a galactic collision. In images (a) and (b), the two colliding galaxies can be clearly seen. Galaxy Formation and Evolution Infrared

27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. This appears to be an instance of galactic cannibalism – the large galaxy has three cores. Galaxy Formation and Evolution Computer enhanced false color

28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. This simulation shows how interaction with a smaller galaxy could turn a larger one into a spiral. Galaxy Formation and Evolution Merging Clusters of Galaxies

29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. These visible and X-ray images show two supermassive black holes orbiting each other at a distance of about 1 kpc. They are expected to merge in about 400 million years. Black Holes and Active Galaxies

30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. This galaxy is viewed in the radio spectrum, mostly from 21-cm radiation. Doppler shifts of emissions from the core show enormous speeds very close to a massive object – a black hole. Black Holes and Active Galaxies

31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Black Holes and Active Galaxies Careful measurements show that the mass of the central black hole is correlated with the size of the galactic core. 100 Mly Virgo

32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The quasars we see are very distant, meaning they existed a long time ago. Therefore, they may represent an early stage in galaxy development. The quasars in this image are shown with their host galaxies. Black Holes and Active Galaxies

33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. a) the source of energy is very small. b) energy is coming from matter and antimatter. c) the energy source is rotating rapidly. d) a chain reaction of supernovas occurs. e) there are many separate sources of energy in the core. Question 6 The rapid variation of brightness of quasars indicates

34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. a) the source of energy is very small. b) energy is coming from matter and antimatter. c) the energy source is rotating rapidly. d) a chain reaction of supernovas occurs. e) there are many separate sources of energy in the core. Question 6 The rapid variation of brightness of quasars indicates The size of an object cannot be larger than the distance light can travel in the time it takes to change its brightness.

35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The end of the quasar epoch seems to have been about 10 billion years ago; all the quasars we have seen are older than that. Why might that be? The black holes powering the quasars do not go away; it is believed that many, if not most, galaxies have a supermassive black hole at their centers. Black Holes and Active Galaxies

36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. This figure shows how galaxies may have evolved, from early irregulars through active galaxies, to the normal ellipticals and spirals we see today. Black Holes and Active Galaxies

37 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Galaxy clusters join in larger groupings, called superclusters. This is a 3-D map of the superclusters nearest us; we are part of the Virgo Supercluster. The Universe on Very Large Scales

38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Universe on Very Large Scales This plot shows the locations of individual galaxies within the Virgo Supercluster.

39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. This slice of a larger galactic survey shows that, on the scale of 100–200 Mpc, there is structure in the universe – walls and voids. The Universe on Very Large Scales Stephen Gregory

40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. a) a smooth, continuous, and homogeneous arrangement of clusters. b) large voids, with most of the galaxies lying in filaments and sheets. c) a large supercluster at the center of the universe. d) a central void with walls of galaxies at the edge of the universe. Question 7 The large-scale distribution of galaxies in the universe reveals

41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. a) a smooth, continuous, and homogeneous arrangement of clusters. b) large voids, with most of the galaxies lying in filaments and sheets. c) a large supercluster at the center of the universe. d) a central void with walls of galaxies at the edge of the universe. Question 7 The large-scale distribution of galaxies in the universe reveals

42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. This survey, extending out even farther, shows structure on the scale of 100–200 Mpc, but no sign of structure on a larger scale than that. The decreasing density of galaxies at the farthest distances is due to the difficulty of observing them. The Universe on Very Large Scales

43 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Quasars are all very distant, and the light coming to us from them has probably gone through many interesting regions. We can learn about the intervening space by careful study of quasar spectra. The Universe on Very Large Scales

44 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. This “absorption-line forest” is the result of quasar light passing through hundreds of gas clouds, each with a different redshift, on its way to us. The Universe on Very Large Scales

45 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. This appeared at first to be a double quasar, but on closer inspection the two quasars turned out to be not just similar, but identical – down to their luminosity variations. This is not two quasars at all – it is two images of the same quasar. The Universe on Very Large Scales

46 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. a) total mass of stars, gas, and dark matter. b) central supermassive black hole. c) globular clusters. d) magnetic fields. e) intergalactic gas. Question 8 The lensing of a distant quasar is produced in a foreground galaxy by its

47 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. a) total mass of stars, gas, and dark matter. b) central supermassive black hole. c) globular clusters. d) magnetic fields. e) intergalactic gas. Question 8 The lensing of a distant quasar is produced in a foreground galaxy by its The twin quasar AC114 has two images of the same object.

48 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. This could happen via gravitational lensing. From this we can learn aboutgravitational lensing the quasar itself, as there is usually a time difference between the two paths. We can also learn about the lensing galaxy by analyzing the bending of the light. The Universe on Very Large Scales

49 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Here, the intervening galaxy has made four images of the distant quasar. The Universe on Very Large Scales

50 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. These are two spectacular images of gravitational lensing. On the left are distant galaxies being imaged by a whole cluster. On the right is a cluster with images of what is probably a single galaxy. The Universe on Very Large Scales

51 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. On the left is a visible image of a cluster of galaxies. On the right, to the same scale, is the dark matter distribution inferred from galaxy motion. The Universe on Very Large Scales

52 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. More Things to Study 1.Identify parts of a waveform such as amplitude and wavelength 2.What is a photon 3.What is a quanta of energy 4.Telescopes collect light, lots of light 5.What is the advantage of the HST 6.Why do stars twinkle

53 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Galaxy masses can be determined by rotation curves and galaxy clusters. All measures show that a large amount of dark matter must exist. Large galaxies probably formed from the merger of smaller ones. Collisions are also important. Merger of spiral galaxies probably results in an elliptical. Summary of Chapter 16

54 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Quasars, active galaxies, and normal galaxies may represent an evolutionary sequence. Galaxy clusters are gravitationally bound into superclusters. The universe has structure up to 100–200 Mpc; beyond that, there is no sign of it. Quasars can be used as probes of intervening space, especially if there is galactic lensing. Summary of Chapter 16, cont.


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