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Rotational Motion

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Angular Quantities: Position In purely rotational motion, all points on the object move in circles around the axis of rotation (“O”). The radius of the circle is r. All points on a straight line drawn through the axis move through the same angle in the same time. The angle θ in radians is defined: where l is the arc length measured in radians.

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Angular Quantities: Displacement and Velocity Angular displacement: Δθ = θ 2 – θ 1 The average angular velocity is defined as the total angular displacement divided by time: Measured in Radians/s

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Angular Quantities: Acceleration The angular acceleration is the rate at which the angular velocity changes with time: Measured in Radians/s 2

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Linear vs Angular Velocity Suppose we have 2 horses on a carousel. The black horse is 1 meter from the center and the white horse is 2 meters from the center. – Which horse has a greater angular velocity? They have the same! They will each cover a full rotation (360 o ) in the same amount of time. – Which horse “feels” like they are going “faster”? The white one! – The white horse is going faster because it has a greater Linear Velocity. It covers a greater distance (circumference) in the same amount of time.

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Angular Quantities: Linear and Angular Velocity Every point on a rotating body has an angular velocity ω and a linear velocity v. They are related:

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Angular Quantities Therefore, objects farther from the axis of rotation will move faster.

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Angular Quantities Three Types of acceleration If the angular velocity of a rotating object changes, it has a tangential acceleration: Even if the angular velocity is constant, each point on the object has a centripetal acceleration: (8-5)

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Angular Quantities: How do they relate? Here is the correspondence between linear and rotational quantities:

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Constant Angular Acceleration Angular Kinematic Equation (unit 1) The equations of motion for constant angular acceleration are the same as those for linear motion, with the substitution of the angular quantities for the linear ones.

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Rolling Motion (Without Slipping) In (a), a wheel is rolling without slipping. The point P, touching the ground, is instantaneously at rest, and the center moves with velocity v. In (b) the same wheel is seen from a reference frame where C is at rest. Now point P is moving with velocity –v. Relationship between linear and angular speeds: v = rω

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Torque To make an object start rotating, a force is needed; the position and direction of the force matter as well. The perpendicular distance from the axis of rotation to the line along which the force acts is called the lever arm.

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Torque A longer lever arm is very helpful in rotating objects. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Torque Here, the lever arm for F A is the distance from the knob to the hinge; the lever arm for F D is zero; and the lever arm for F C is as shown. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Torque The torque is defined as: © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. (8-10a)

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Rotational Dynamics (Unit 2); Torque and Rotational Inertia

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Rotational Dynamics; Torque and Rotational Inertia The quantity I = Σmr 2 is called the rotational inertia of an object. (Unit: kg m 2 ) The distribution of mass matters here—these two objects have the same mass, but the one on the left has a greater rotational inertia, as so much of its mass is far from the axis of rotation.

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Rotational Dynamics; Torque and Rotational Inertia The rotational inertia of an object depends not only on its mass distribution but also the location of the axis of rotation—compare (f) and (g), for example.

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