Presentation on theme: "… how I wonder what you are."— Presentation transcript:
1… how I wonder what you are. Stars… how I wonder what you are.
2Goals Stars are Suns. Are they: What categories can we place them in? Near? Far?Brighter? Dimmer?Hotter? Cooler?Heavier? Lighter?Larger? Smaller?What categories can we place them in?
3Angular Size Linear size = how big something really is Meters, inches, light years, feetAngular size = how big something looksDegrees, arcminutes, arcseconds, milliarcsecondsCircle = 360 degrees1 degree = 60 arcmin1 arcmin = 60 arcsec1 arcsec = 1000 mas
5Distance One proof of a heliocentric Universe is stellar parallax. Tycho Brahe saw no parallax.Copernicus: stars too far away.Nearest star: Proxima CentauriParallax angle = 0.76 arcsecTycho’s precision = 1 arcmin
6The ParsecWhat is the distance of an object with a parallax angle of 1 arcsec?Distance = 206,265 AUThis distance is 1 parsec (pc)1 pc = 206,265 AU = 3.3 ly1 lightyear = distance light travels in one year.
7Concept TestIf Star A has a parallax of 2 arcseconds, and Star B has a parallax of 0.25 arcseconds:Star A is closer to us than Star B. Both are farther from us than 1 pc.Star A is closer to us than Star B. Both are closer to us than 1 pc.Star A is closer to us than 1 pc. Star B is farther than 1 pc.Star B is closer to us than 1 pc. Star A is farther than 1 pc.Star B is closer to us than Star A. Both are farther away than 1 pc.
8Distances Closest star: Proxima Centauri parallax = 0.76 arcsec Distance = 1.3 pc or 4.3 lightyears
9Terms Brightness = How intense is the light I see from where I am. Magnitude is numerical term for this.Luminosity = how much light is the thing really giving off.
10Magnitude Scale The SMALLER the number the BRIGHTER the star! Every difference of 1 magnitude = 2.5x brighter or dimmer.Difference of 2 magnitudes = 2.5x2.5 = 6.3x brighter or dimmer
11Magnitude vs. Brightness Mag. DifferenceFactors of 2.5Brightness Diff.12.51 = 2.52.522.52 = 2.5 X 2.56.332.53 = 2.5 X 2.5 X 2.51642.54 = 2.5 X 2.5 X 2.5 X 2.54052.55 = 2.5 X 2.5 X 2.5 X 2.5 X 2.510062.56 = 2.5 X 2.5 X 2.5 X 2.5 X 2.5 X 2.5250
12Star light, star brightSirius is magnitude -1.5 Polaris is magnitude 2.5Is Sirius really more luminous than Polaris?No, Sirius is just closer.
13Apparent and AbsoluteApparent Magnitude = brightness (magnitude) of a star as seen from Earth. mDepends on star’s total energy radiated (Luminosity) and distanceAbsolute Magnitude = brightness (magnitude) of a star as seen from a distance of 10 pc. MOnly depends on a star’s luminosity
14Concept TestPolaris has a an apparent magnitude of 2.5. It’s absolute magnitude is 3.1. Polaris is:Closer to us than 10pc.Farther from us than 10 pc.Exactly 10 pc away.Can’t know without the parallax angle.None of these is correct.
15Concept TestPolaris has a parallax angle of 0.01 arcsconds. Polaris is therefore:Closer to us than 1pc.Farther from us than 1pc.Exactly 1pc away.
16Concept TestPolaris has a parallax angle of 0.01 arcsconds. Polaris is therefore:1pc.10pc.100pc.1000pc.None of the above.
17example Our Sun: Polaris: distance = 4.8 x 10-6 pcSo: M = 4.8Polaris:m = 2.5,distance = ~100 pcSo: M = -3.1Polaris is 1500 times more luminous than the Sun!
18Concept Test Star Distance m M A 5 pc 1.0 B 10 pc 2.5 C 20 pc -1.0 The most likely absolute magnitudes (M) for each is:A = 2.5, B = -2.5, C = 2.5A = 2.5, B = 2.5, C = -2.5A = -2.5, B = 2.5, C = 2.5A = 2.5, B = 2.5, C = 2.5None of the above.
19A SpectrumEmission linesAbsorption linesContinuumA spectrum = the amount of light given off by an object at a range of wavelengths.
20Three Reasons All objects do one or more: Reflect light because of color or smoothness (same as scatter)Emit light because of their temperature(thermal radiation)Emit or absorb light because of their composition(spectral lines)A person, house, or the Moon: reflects visible light, and because each is warm, emits infrared light.
21Concept Question A red chair appear red because: it emits red light. it transmits red light.it absorbs red light.it reflects red light.all of the aboveD. it reflects red light.
22Temperature and LightWarm objects emit light.Thermal radiation
23Stellar Temperatures Hot How hot are stars? Stellar SpectraHotCoolHow hot are stars?Thermal radiation and temperature.Different stars have different colors, different stars are temperatures.Different temp, different trace compositions
25Stellar Masses How massive are stars? Kepler’s Laws – devised for the planets.Apply to any object that orbits another object.Kepler’s Third Law relates:Period: “how long it takes to orbit something”Semimajor axis: “how far you are away from that something”Mass: “how much gravity is pulling you around in orbit”Where M is the Total Mass.Can calculate the mass of stars this way.
26Binary Stars Most stars in the sky are in multiple systems. Binaries, triplets, quadruplets, etc….SiriusAlcor and MizarTatooineThe Sun is in the minority by being single.
28Stellar Masses How massive are stars? Most stars have masses calculated this way.Find:The more massive the star, the more luminous it is.The more massive the star, the hotter it is.
29Stellar Radii How big are stars? 50 masHow big are stars?We see stars have different luminosities and different temperatures.Stars have different sizes.If you know:DistanceAngular sizeLearn real size.
30Betelgeuse Angular size = 50 mas Parallax = 7.6 mas = 0.0076 arcsec Apparent mag = 0.6Distance = 1/parallax = 132 pcTrue size = distance * angular size = 1400 RsolModel solar system: 97 yards in radius.Absolute Mag = m – 5log(d/10pc) = -5Our sun M ~5, Betelgeuse = 10,000x luminosity
31Angular versus LinearSupergiants, Giants and Dwarfs
32H-R Diagram Can order the stars by: Temperature (or spectral type)Luminosity (or absolute magnitude).And see where other qualities fall:MassRadius
34Luminosity Class I V III The roman numerals. Stars at same temp can have different luminosities.Corresponds to different classes: MS, giant, supergiant.IVIII
35Concept Test Which star is: Of Main Seq. Stars? Star Spec Type m M A F0 V0.0BG2 V10.04.4CK5 III-2.0DF7 I-1.0-5.0EK3 V5.06.5Which star is:Hottest?Coolest?Faintest as seen from Earth?Most luminous?Of Main Seq. Stars?Most massive?Most like the Sun?
36The Main Sequence Stars characterized by what holds them up. 90% held up by heat of Hydrogen fusion?4H He + Energy