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Chapter Menu Lesson 1:Solids, Liquids, and GasesSolids, Liquids, and Gases Lesson 2:Changes in States of MatterChanges in States of Matter Click on.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Menu Lesson 1:Solids, Liquids, and GasesSolids, Liquids, and Gases Lesson 2:Changes in States of MatterChanges in States of Matter Click on."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Chapter Menu Lesson 1:Solids, Liquids, and GasesSolids, Liquids, and Gases Lesson 2:Changes in States of MatterChanges in States of Matter Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson.

4 random motion solid liquid gas 6.1 Solids, Liquids, and Gases

5 What are states of matter? The state of matter depends on the motion of its particles. 6.1 Solids, Liquids, and Gases States of matter are solids, liquids, gases, and plasma. States of Matter

6 What are states of matter? (cont.) 6.1 Solids, Liquids, and Gases

7 Particles in Matter All objects are made of particles. Even though the objects are not moving, their particles are. Particles move in random motion, or in any direction at any speed. 6.1 Solids, Liquids, and Gases

8 Particles in Matter (cont.) In any object, the number of particles moving in one direction is equal to the number of particles moving in the opposite direction. Particles collide and change speed and direction. 6.1 Solids, Liquids, and Gases

9 Particles Attract Particles are attracted to each other. The attraction grows stronger as particles move closer together and weaker as they move apart. 6.1 Solids, Liquids, and Gases

10 Solids A solid is matter with a fixed shape and fixed volume. Particles stay in the same place and vibrate back and forth in all directions. 6.1 Solids, Liquids, and Gases

11 Liquids A liquid is matter with a fixed volume but not a fixed shape. The particles are farther apart and not as strongly attracted so they move more freely than in a solid. 6.1 Solids, Liquids, and Gases

12 Gases A gas is matter that has no fixed shape or fixed volume. Shape and volume of a gas depends on the container. Gas particles move in random motion inside a container. 6.1 Solids, Liquids, and Gases

13 Familiar States of Matter 6.1 Solids, Liquids, and Gases Familiar States of Matter

14 Lesson 1 Review Particles in a ____ are close together and strongly attracted and therefore, can only vibrate. Agas Bliquid Csolid Dplasma 6.1 Solids, Liquids, and Gases 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

15 Lesson 1 Review Why do liquids have a fixed volume, but not a fixed shape? AThe particles are strongly attracted to each other and close together. BThe particles are attracted to each other but far enough apart they can slide past each other. CThe particles are so far apart the attraction is weak and they have random movement. Dnone of the above 6.1 Solids, Liquids, and Gases 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

16 Lesson 1 Review Which three states of matter are most common on Earth? Asolid, liquid, plasma Bgas, liquid, plasma Cplasma, solid, gas Dsolid, liquid, gas 6.1 Solids, Liquids, and Gases 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

17 End of Lesson 1

18 temperature thermal energy melting point freezing point vaporization boiling 6.2 Changes in States of Matter boiling point evaporation condensation sublimation deposition

19 Temperature, Thermal Energy, and Heat A change from one state to another is the result of the change in motion of particles in an object and the strength of the forces of the particles in the object. Changes in energy can cause matter to change from one state to another. 6.2 Changes in States of Matter Matter Changing State

20 Moving Particles and Kinetic Energy Even when an object is not moving, the particles in the object are moving. The particles have kinetic energy. The gas particles inside the balloon have energy because they are moving. 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

21 Moving Particles and Kinetic Energy (cont.)

22 Temperature and Average Kinetic Energy Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a material. Particles in matter move faster as the temperature increases. lower temperature higher temperature 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

23 Measuring Temperature One way to measure temperature is to use a liquid thermometer. The particles in the liquid move farther apart and cause the liquid to take up more space. 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

24 Particles of Matter and Potential Energy Particles in a substance have potential energy. –Potential energy decreases as particles move closer together. –Potential energy increases as particles move farther apart. 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

25 Particles of Matter and Potential Energy (cont.) 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

26 Thermal Energy Thermal energy includes both kinetic and potential energy. Objects in the gas state have particles that move faster and are farther apart compared to objects in the solid state. Gas particles have more potential and kinetic energy than particles in a solid. The thermal energy of the gas state is greater than the solid state for any substance. 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

27 Adding and Removing Thermal Energy Heating a pot of water adds thermal energy. Cooling water in a refrigerator removes thermal energy. 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

28 Thermal Energy and Changes of State When kinetic energy is increasing in a substance, the temperature of the substance increases. When only potential energy is increasing, the substance changes state. 6.2 Changes in States of Matter How does thermal energy affect the state of a substance?

29 Thermal Energy and Changes of State (cont.) 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

30 Changes Between the Solid and Liquid States The difference between water and ice are the movements of the particles and the thermal energy the particles contain. Melting occurs when a solid changes into a liquid. The melting point of a material is the temperature at which a material changes from solid to liquid. 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

31 Changes Between the Solid and Liquid States (cont.) As thermal energy is added to a solid, the temperature increases until the melting point is reached. The substance does not increase temperature until it has completely melted. 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

32 Changes Between the Solid and Liquid States (cont.) 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

33 Energy Changes During Melting Even though thermal energy is still being added, the temperature is not changing as a substance melts. The average kinetic energy of the substance does not change, only the potential energy changes. The attractive forces become weaker as the particles increase speed and move farther apart. 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

34 Energy Changes During Melting (cont.) 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

35 Freezing Freezing occurs when a liquid changes into a solid. The freezing point is the temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid. Thermal energy is removed and the potential energy decreases. 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

36 Freezing (cont.) 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

37 Vaporization and Boiling Boiling water is liquid changing to a gas. Vaporization is the change from a liquid to a gas. The particles become too spread out and the attractive forces are too weak to keep the particles close together. 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

38 Vaporization and Boiling (cont.) Vaporization occurs both at the surface and inside the liquid. Vaporization that occurs within the liquid is called boiling. Boiling point refers to the temperature that boiling occurs in a substance. 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

39 Vaporization and Boiling (cont.) 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

40 Evaporation Vaporization that occurs at the surface of a liquid is called evaporation. Evaporation occurs both at the boiling point and temperatures below the boiling point. 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

41 Pressure and the Boiling Point The boiling point depends on the pressure exerted on the liquid. Bubbles in the liquid must form for boiling to occur. As air pressure increases, it becomes harder for the bubbles to form. The boiling point increases as air pressure increases. 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

42 Condensation Condensation is the change from a gas to a liquid. Thermal energy is removed from a gas. The gas particles slow down and move closer together until the attractive forces hold them together and a liquid forms. 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

43 Condensation (cont.) 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

44 Adding Thermal Energy The temperature of the ice increases until the melting point is reached. The temperature stays constant as the ice melts. After the ice has melted, the temperature increases until the boiling point is reached. The temperature stops increasing until all the water has changed to water vapor. 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

45 Adding Thermal Energy (cont.) Adding more thermal energy causes the temperature of the water vapor to increase. 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

46 Removing Thermal Energy Water vapor changes back into ice by removing thermal energy. 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

47 Changes Between Solids and Gases Sublimation is the change of a solid to a gas without going through the liquid stage. Thermal energy must be added to a solid. Dry ice changes from a solid to a gas. 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

48 Changes Between Solids and Gases The opposite of sublimation is deposition, the change of a gas to a solid without going through the liquid state. Thermal energy is removed from a gas. Water vapor changes directly to ice as frost on leaves. (cont.) 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

49 Changes in Energy Among States of Matter 6.2 Changes in States of Matter

50 Lesson 2 Review The point at which a liquid changes to a gas is called ____. Amelting point Bfreezing point Ccondensation point Dboiling point 6.2 Changes in States of Matter 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

51 Lesson 2 Review A liquid can change to a gas through ____. Aevaporation Bfreezing Cmelting Dsublimation 6.2 Changes in States of Matter 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

52 Lesson 2 Review Thermal energy must be ____ when a liquid changes to a ____. Alost; gas Bgained; solid Clost; solid Dincreased; solid 6.2 Changes in States of Matter 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

53 End of Lesson 2

54 Chapter Resources Menu Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature. Chapter Assessment California Standards Practice Concepts in Motion Image Bank Science Online Interactive Table Virtual Lab BrainPOP

55 A ____ has no fixed shape but a fixed volume. Agas Bliquid Csolid Dplasma Chapter Assessment 1 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

56 Gases have ____ and ____. Ano fixed shape; fixed volume Bfixed shape; no fixed volume Cfixed shape; fixed volume Dno fixed shape; no fixed volume Chapter Assessment 2 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

57 The particles in a solid are ____ and ____ compared to the particles in a liquid. Acloser together; slower Bfarther apart; slower Cfarther apart; faster Dcloser together; faster Chapter Assessment 3 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

58 Sublimation occurs when a solid changes into a ____. Aliquid Bgas Cplasma Dsteam Chapter Assessment 4 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

59 As air pressure ____, the ____ of a liquid increases. Adecreases; boiling point Bdecreases; freezing point Cincreases; freezing point Dincreases; boiling point Chapter Assessment 5 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

60 Which describes particles in a solid? AThey are far apart and have weak attractive forces for each other. BThey move rapidly and in any direction. CThey vibrate in a fixed location. DThey have no fixed volume. CA Standards Practice 1 SCI 3.e 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

61 Why do liquids have no fixed shape? AThe particles vibrate in a fixed location. BThe particles have a high average kinetic energy. CThe particles have a high potential energy. DThe particles can slide past each other. CA Standards Practice 2 SCI 3.e 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

62 Adding thermal energy can ____ or ____. Alower temperature; change the state of matter Bincrease temperature; lower temperature Cincrease temperature; change the state of matter Dremove kinetic energy; change the state of matter CA Standards Practice 3 SCI 3.e 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

63 In which state of matter are particles far apart and moving in random motion? Agas Bliquid Csolid Dice CA Standards Practice 4 SCI 3.d 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

64 One glass of water has a temperature of 30°C and another glass of water a temperature of 40°C. Which is true? AThe glass of water at 30°C has lower average kinetic energy. BThe glass of water at 40°C has lower average kinetic energy. CThe two glasses have equal average kinetic energy. Dnone of the above CA Standards Practice 5 SCI 3.e 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D

65 Concepts in Motion 1

66 Concepts in Motion 2

67 Image Bank

68 Interactive Table

69 End of Resources


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