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Lecture 1 Introduction. General Theory of Foreign Languages Teaching and Learning (FLTL)

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 1 Introduction. General Theory of Foreign Languages Teaching and Learning (FLTL)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 1 Introduction. General Theory of Foreign Languages Teaching and Learning (FLTL)

2 PLAN 1. The goals of the course. 2. Complexity of the term notion “Method” in FLTL. 3. Modeling in FLTL. Stephen D. Krashen's Monitor Model of second language development (1981) 4. Approaches to FLTL. 5. Design. 6. Procedure.

3 1. The goals of the course to give the teacher trainees a straight­ forward introduction to commonly used and less commonly used methods to give the teacher trainees a straight­ forward introduction to commonly used and less commonly used methods to inform about the nature, strengths, and weaknesses of methods and approaches to inform about the nature, strengths, and weaknesses of methods and approaches to form a set of criteria by which to critically read, question, and observe methods to form a set of criteria by which to critically read, question, and observe methods to enable teacher trainees to better arrive at their own judgments and decisions to enable teacher trainees to better arrive at their own judgments and decisions to provide teacher trainees with a wide variety of methodological options to choose from. to provide teacher trainees with a wide variety of methodological options to choose from.

4 2. Complexity of the term notion “Method” in FLTL Edward Anthony in 1963 identified three levels of conceptualization and organization, which he termed approach, method, and technique. Edward Anthony in 1963 identified three levels of conceptualization and organization, which he termed approach, method, and technique.

5 An approach is a set of correlative assumptions dealing with the nature of language teaching and learning. It is axiomatic. It describes the nature of the subject matter to be taught. is a set of correlative assumptions dealing with the nature of language teaching and learning. It is axiomatic. It describes the nature of the subject matter to be taught.

6 Method is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material, no part of which contradicts, and all of which is based upon, the selected approach. An approach is axiomatic, a method is procedural. Within one approach, there can be many methods. is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material, no part of which contradicts, and all of which is based upon, the selected approach. An approach is axiomatic, a method is procedural. Within one approach, there can be many methods.

7 A technique is implementational - that which actually takes place in a classroom. It is a particular trick, strategem, or contrivance used to accomplish an immediate objective. Techniques must be consistent with a method, and therefore in harmony with an approach as well. is implementational - that which actually takes place in a classroom. It is a particular trick, strategem, or contrivance used to accomplish an immediate objective. Techniques must be consistent with a method, and therefore in harmony with an approach as well.

8 Method Approach Design Procedure

9 3. Modeling in FLTL. The model of a method study used in subsequent lectures is based on Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching by Jack C. Richards and Theodore Rodgers. The model of a method study used in subsequent lectures is based on Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching by Jack C. Richards and Theodore Rodgers.

10 Approach Theories of language and language learning The syllabus model Classroom procedures and techniques The roles of teachers and learners Materials used within the approach The learning objectives

11 Stephen D. Krashen's Monitor Model of second language development (1981) At the level of process, Krashen distinguishes between acquisition and learning. Acquisition refers to the natural assimilation of language rules through using language for communication. Learning refers to the formal study of language rules and is a conscious process. At the level of process, Krashen distinguishes between acquisition and learning. Acquisition refers to the natural assimilation of language rules through using language for communication. Learning refers to the formal study of language rules and is a conscious process.

12 Acquisition 1[uncount] the process of buying something or obtaining it in some other way: acquisition of: the acquisition of property acquisition of: the acquisition of property 4[uncount] the process of learning skills or getting knowledge: theories of language acquisition theories of language acquisition (c) Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2003

13 Learning noun [uncount] ** the process of gaining knowledge and experience, for example by studying: noun [uncount] ** the process of gaining knowledge and experience, for example by studying: the oldest institute of learning in Europe The school provides an ideal learning environment for children. a learning experience (=a situation in which you learn something about yourself, other people, or life in general): My summer job wasn't fun but it was a real learning experience for me. a learning experience (=a situation in which you learn something about yourself, other people, or life in general): My summer job wasn't fun but it was a real learning experience for me. a. knowledge that someone has gained, especially by studying: a. knowledge that someone has gained, especially by studying: a man of great learning (c) Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2003

14 Monitor Model of second language development According to Krashen, learning is available only as a "monitor." The monitor is the repository of conscious grammatical knowledge about a language that is learned through formal instruction and that is called upon in the editing of utterances produced through the acquired system. According to Krashen, learning is available only as a "monitor." The monitor is the repository of conscious grammatical knowledge about a language that is learned through formal instruction and that is called upon in the editing of utterances produced through the acquired system.

15 repository noun [count] 1a place where large quantities of things are stored or kept safe: a nuclear waste repository 2a person, book, library etc considered as a store of information and knowledge (c) Macmillan Publishers Ltd (c) Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2003

16 Krashen's theory also addresses the conditions necessary for the process of "acquisition" to take place. Krashen describes these in terms of the type of "input" the learner receives. Input must be comprehensible, slightly above the learner's present level of competence, interesting or relevant, not grammatically sequenced, in sufficient quantity, and experienced in low-anxiety contexts. Krashen's theory also addresses the conditions necessary for the process of "acquisition" to take place. Krashen describes these in terms of the type of "input" the learner receives. Input must be comprehensible, slightly above the learner's present level of competence, interesting or relevant, not grammatically sequenced, in sufficient quantity, and experienced in low-anxiety contexts.

17 4. Approaches to FLTL Approach refers to theories about the nature of language and language learning that serve as the source of practices and principles in language teaching. Approach refers to theories about the nature of language and language learning that serve as the source of practices and principles in language teaching.

18 Approach noun *** noun *** 1[count] a particular way of thinking about or dealing with something: We need a fresh approach to sports in education. approach to: He has a relaxed approach to life. approach to: He has a relaxed approach to life. adopt/take/use an approach: As a writer she takes a completely new approach to the classic horror story. adopt/take/use an approach: As a writer she takes a completely new approach to the classic horror story. (four meanings!) (c) Macmillan Publishers Ltd (c) Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2003

19 Theory of language There are at least three different theoretical views of language and the nature of language proficiency. There are at least three different theoretical views of language and the nature of language proficiency.

20 Theoretical views of language and the nature of language proficiency Interactional theory Struc tural theory Funct ional theory

21 generalization Process-oriented theories Condition-oriented theories habit formation induction inferencing hypothesis testing physical context human context Language Learning Theories

22 Design Objectives of a method Selection and organization of language content The roles of teachers The role of instructional materials The roles of learners Types of learning tasks and teaching activities

23 6. Procedure The actual moment-to-moment techniques, practices, and behaviors that operate in teaching a language according to a particular method are termed “procedure”. The actual moment-to-moment techniques, practices, and behaviors that operate in teaching a language according to a particular method are termed “procedure”.

24 At the level of procedure we are concerned with how tasks and activities are integrated into lessons and used as the basis for teaching and learning. There are three dimensions to a method at the level of procedure: At the level of procedure we are concerned with how tasks and activities are integrated into lessons and used as the basis for teaching and learning. There are three dimensions to a method at the level of procedure:

25 three dimensions the use of teaching activities (drills, dialogues, information-gap activities, etc.) to present new language and to clarify and demonstrate formal, communicative, or other aspects of the target language; the use of teaching activities (drills, dialogues, information-gap activities, etc.) to present new language and to clarify and demonstrate formal, communicative, or other aspects of the target language; the ways in which particular teaching activities are used for practicing language; the ways in which particular teaching activities are used for practicing language; the procedures and techniques used in giving feedback to learners concerning the form or content of their utterances or sentences. the procedures and techniques used in giving feedback to learners concerning the form or content of their utterances or sentences.


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