# 1. How would the effort exerted by a backpacker over level ground compare to the effort in climbing a steep hill? 2. How would the weight of the backpack.

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1. How would the effort exerted by a backpacker over level ground compare to the effort in climbing a steep hill? 2. How would the weight of the backpack affect the amount of force needed to move it?

Work and Machines A. Work 1. The transfer of energy when a force makes an object move. 2. W = f ·d Box being given energy 3. Energy is transferred between objects when work is done. (Unit is a joule or N ·m)

B. Power 1. The rate at which work is done. 2. P = W / t 3. Unit is the watt (1 joule / second) 4. Btu = 1,055 watts (for heating and cooling units) 5. Horsepower = 746 watts (for motors and engines)

C. Using Machines 1. A machine makes doing work easier. 2. They may multiply the applied force. The car may weigh a lot, but you don’t have to use nearly that much force to lift it with a jack.

3. They may increase the distance over which a force is applied. In this case, the amount of force necessary to push the chair up the ramp was decreased.

4. They may change the direction a force has to be applied. The nail comes up as the person pulls to the side.

D. Important terms for machines 1. Resistance – the force being moved (F R ) 2. Effort – the force being used to move a resistance (F E ) 3. Effort Distance – the distance the effort force moves through (d e ) 4. Resistance Distance – how far the resistance moves (d r )

E. Work Calculations 1. Work Input – the amount of work done on a simple machine. 2. W in = F E d e 3. Work output – the amount of work the machine actually does. 4. W out = F R d r

F. Conservation of Energy 1. No machine can create energy, so W out can never be greater than W in 2. In reality, W out is always less than W in because of friction producing heat; the heat had to come from the energy put into the machine. 3. An ideal machine is theoretical; it does not take friction into account. 4. Ideal machine: W in = W out

G. Mechanical Advantage 1. MA is the number of times a machine multiplies the effort force. 2. MA = FR FR / F E & MA = de de / drdr H. Efficiency 1. Measures how much of the work input is changed into useful output 2. Efficiency = (W out / W in ) x 100%

3. Lubricants (such as oil oil and graphite graphite) reduce friction & increase efficiency. Oil fills the space between surfaces so high spots don’t rub against each other.

I. The Simple Machines 1. Levers a. 1 st class: b. 2 nd class: c. 3 rd class: d. IMA = effort arm / resistance arm FRFR FEFE FRFR FEFE FRFR FEFE

First Class Lever EF is between fulcrum and RF Does not multiply force Resistance moves farther than Effort. Multiplies the distance the effort force travels

Second Class lever RF is between fulcrum and EF Effort moves farther than Resistance. Multiplies EF, but does not change its direction

Third Class Lever Fulcrum is between EF and RF Effort moves farther than Resistance. Multiplies EF and changes its direction

2. Pulleys a. Fixed pulley 1) changes only the direction of a force 2) always has IMA = 1 b. Movable pulley 1) attached to object 2) IMA = 2

c. Block and Tackle 1) system of fixed and movable pulleys 2) IMA = number of strands supporting the resistance This strand does not count toward the IMA

3. Wheel and Axle a. IMA = rw rw / rara b. Gears are modified forms of the wheel and axle

4. Inclined Planes: IMA = Ls Ls / LhLh 5. The Screw a. Modified inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder b. The pitch of the threading determines the IMA 6. The Wedge: two inclined planes back-to-back

HINT Remember the letters FRE The first letter (for 1st class) is "F" and "F" for Fulcrum in the middle The second letter (for 2nd class) is "R" and Resistance is in the middle The third letter (for 3rd class) is "E" and Effort is in the middle

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