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Seasons and Tilt. Objective: To learn the different seasons, and what causes them.

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Presentation on theme: "Seasons and Tilt. Objective: To learn the different seasons, and what causes them."— Presentation transcript:

1 Seasons and Tilt

2 Objective: To learn the different seasons, and what causes them.

3 Define “Rotation” at the top of your paper.

4 “Rotation”: The spinning of the planet on its axis.

5 “Revolution”: Means going in an orbit around the sun.

6 Why is it that during the summer its hot, & yet during the winter it is cold?

7 Most adults would say its because the Earth is closer to the Sun during the summer-so its hotter.

8 & that the Earth is farther from the Sun during the Winter— so its colder.

9 WinterSummer Farther Away Closer Sun E E

10 Turns out that, that is totally false, & back wards. We are farther away in the summer & closer in the winter.

11 WinterSummer Farther Away Closer Sun E E Its Reverse of the other diagram.

12 How could we be hotter when we are farther away during the summer?

13 It is because of Earth’s TILT, & the proportion of the Sun’s rays that reach the Earth.

14 To outside of orbit is: Night

15 Notice the dashed “orbit line”. Note to the outside it is Night time. Label the top right corner.

16 Notice the dashed “orbit line”. Note to the inside it is Day time. Label the bottom right corner.

17 To inside of orbit is: Day

18 Color Code the Sun Yellow in the center.

19 Sun

20 Notice: At the Dec. 22 position the Earth is tilted away from the Sun. Label this above the Sun.

21 N. Hemisphere Tilted Away

22 Sun E Dec. 22 Earth is tilted away from the Sun=Winter.

23 Notice on Dec. 22 in the diagram that most of the Sun’s rays hit the Earth from the equator to the S. Pole.

24 Most Few Dec. 22 Sun

25 Color code from the equator to the South Pole “Dark” Orange below the dashed orbit line.

26 Most Few Dec. 22 Sun

27 Since “Most” (70%) of the rays hit in the Southern Hemisphere that’s where it would be “summer”.

28 Label that part of your diagram Summer.

29 Dec. 22 Sun Summer Away

30 Now color code from the equator to the North Pole Light Orange below the dashed orbit line.

31 Dec. 22 Sun Summer Away

32 Label that section “Winter” on your diagram.

33 Dec. 22 Sun Summer Away Winter

34 Color code above the dashed orbit line dark blue, in the Northern Hemisphere.

35

36 Color code above the dashed orbit line light blue, in the Southern Hemisphere.

37

38 Note that during the summer we have long days (dark orange) and short nights (light blue).

39 Its reverse during the winter we have short days (light orange) and long nights (dark blue).

40 Color code to the inside of the dashed orbit line medium orange, at the Mar. 22 Position.

41

42 Sun Mar. 22 Earth is tilted sideways (not pointing toward or away from Sun)=Spring. E

43 Color code to the outside of the dashed orbit line medium blue, at the Mar. 22 Position.

44

45 Label the Northern Hemisphere Spring & the Southern Hemisphere Fall on your diagram.

46 Fall Spring

47 Notice we have 12 hrs. of light, & 12 hrs. of dark, during Fall & Spring. Label this on your paper.

48 Fall Spring 12hrs. Light 12hrs Dark

49 Go to the bottom of your paper & define Equinox: Equal amounts of light & darkness, 12hrs. of each.

50 Now label the left side of the Mar. 22 position Vernal (Vernal means Spring) Equinox.

51 Fall Spring Vernal Equinox

52 Your diagram should look like this now.

53 Fall Spring Vernal Equinox Summer Winter Away

54 Label below the Sun that the N. Hemisphere is tilted “Toward” the Sun.

55 Fall Spring Vernal Equinox Summer Winter Away Toward Sun N. Hemisphere Tilted

56 Sun June 22 Earth is tilted toward the Sun=Summer. E

57 Color code to the inside of the dashed orbit line dark orange, in the Northern Hemisphere at the June 22 position

58

59 Color code to the inside of the dashed orbit line light orange, in the Southern Hemisphere.

60

61 Now label the June 22 position Summer in the Northern H. & Winter in the S. Hemisphere.

62 SummerWinter June 22

63 Color code to the outside of the dashed orbit line dark blue for winter & light blue for summer.

64

65

66 June 22 Earth is tilted sideways (not pointing toward or away from the Sun=Fall. Sun E Sept. 22

67 Color code to the inside of the dashed orbit line medium orange, & to the outside medium blue, at the Sep. 22 position.

68

69

70 Label the Northern Hemisphere Fall & the Southern Hemisphere Spring at the Sept. 22 position.

71 Fall Spring

72 Notice we have 12 hrs. of light, & 12 hrs. of dark, during Fall & Spring. Label this on your paper.

73 Fall Spring 12hrs. Light 12hrs Dark

74 Label the right side of the Sept. 22 position Autumnal Equinox.

75 Fall Spring Autumnal Equinox

76 Your diagram should look like this now.

77 Fall Spring Vernal Equinox Summer Winter Away Sun Toward Summer Winter Fall Spring Autumnal Equinox

78 Go to the bottom of your paper and define Solstice.

79 Solstice: This is where the Earth reaches the 2 farthest ends of the ellipse orbit.

80 Sun Summer Solstice Earth is tilted toward the Sun=Summer Solstice. EE Winter Solstice June 22Dec. 22 Earth is tilted away from the Sun=Winter Solstice.

81 From the Earth the Sun sets the farthest South during a Winter Solstice, & the farthest North during a Summer Solstice.

82 Solstice: This is where the Earth reaches the 2 farthest ends of the ellipse orbit.

83 Go above the Dec. 22 Position & label it Winter Solstice, & below the June 22 position & label it Summer Solstice.

84 Fall Spring Vernal Equinox Summer Winter Away Sun Toward Summer Winter Fall Spring Autumnal Equinox Winter Solstice Summer Solstice

85 Now color code the tip end of each Arctic North & South Pole Red at each position.

86

87 Note: To the outside of the orbit line at the Winter & Summer Solstice positions it is dark 24 hrs. a day. Label this.

88 24 hrs Dark 24 hrs. Dark

89 Note: To the inside of the orbit line at the Winter & Summer Solstice positions it is light 24 hrs. a day. Label this.

90 24 hrs. Light

91 Now answer the questions on the Left side of notebook.

92 In illustration (a) the northern hemisphere would be experiencing what season?________

93 Sun’s Rays Date:_________ (a) _______________

94 In illustration (b) the northern hemisphere would be experiencing what season?________

95 _______________ Sun’s Rays Date:_________ (b)

96 Draw a diagram and write down what season is being described.

97 (a) The number of daylight hours equals the number of hours of darkness.

98 _______________ Sun’s Rays Date:_________

99 How did ancient people know the seasons of the year, or when a new year had come? OBSERVATIONS!!!

100 Chaco Canyon, NM

101 Summer Solstice

102 Winter Solstice

103 Equinox

104

105

106 Casa Grande Ruins Coolidge Arizona It is the only Native American ruin structure of its kind in the U.S. The Casa Grande dates to approximately A.D and includes calendar holes in the walls which let in light at specific times of the year, such as the summer solstice and the fall and spring equinox.

107 Sinagua Petroglyphs

108

109 The Vernal and Autumnal Equinox aligns three concentric circles

110 The full corn planting is marked in the third week of May by concentric circles and the corn stalk centered in the sun shaft.

111 The Summer Solstice is marked when the concentric circles frame the upper shadow line, and the lower line stops at the dancers

112 The Winter Solstice is marked by the sun's appearance at the lowest point between the petroglyph panel and the stone pillar.

113 Closure Write 2-3 complete sentences explaining, What is happening at the solstices with light? What is happening during the equinoxes with light?

114


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