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© UNCTAD End
© UNCTAD End About … Risk Management
© UNCTAD End Mouse Click to move on to the next slide Next What is Risk Management? Who uses Risk Management? How is Risk Management used? Risk Management in Customs How do you use it in Customs?
© UNCTAD End Mouse Click to move on to the next slide Next Good management practice Process steps that enable improvement in decision making A logical and systematic approach Identifying opportunities Avoiding or minimising losses What is Risk Management?
© UNCTAD End Mouse Click to move on to the next slide Next Risk Management is the name given to a logical and systematic method of identifying, analysing, treating and monitoring the risks involved in any activity or process. What is Risk Management?
© UNCTAD End Mouse Click to move on to the next slide Next Risk Management is a methodology that helps managers make best use of their available resources What is Risk Management?
© UNCTAD End Next Risk Management practices are widely used in public and the private sectors, covering a wide range of activities or operations. These include: Who uses Risk Management? Finance and Investment Insurance Health Care Public Institutions Governments Finance and Investment Insurance Health Care Public Institutions Governments
© UNCTAD End Next Effective Risk ManagementEffective Risk Management is a recognised and valued skill. Educational institutions have formal study courses and award degrees in Risk Management. The Risk Management process is well established. (International RM process standards.) Who uses Risk Management?
© UNCTAD End Next Risk Management is now an integral part of business planning. Who uses Risk Management?
© UNCTAD End The Risk Management process steps are a generic guide for any organisation, regardless of the type of business, activity or function. How is Risk Management used? Next There are 7 7 steps in the RM process
© UNCTAD End Next The basic process steps are: Establish the context Identify the risks Analyse the risks Evaluate the risks Treat the risks
© UNCTAD End Next Risk is dynamic and subject to constant change, so the process includes continuing: Communication & consultation Monitoring and review and
© UNCTAD End Next The Risk Management process: The strategic and organisational context in which risk management will take place. For example, the nature of your business, the risks inherent in your business and your priorities. Communicate & consult Establish the context
© UNCTAD End Next The Risk Management process: Communicate & consult Monitor and review Defining types of risk, for instance, Strategic risks to the goals and objectives of the organisation. Identifying the stakeholders, (i.e.,who is involved or affected). Past events, future developments. Identify the risks
© UNCTAD End Next The Risk Management process: Communicate & consult Monitor and review Analyse the risks How likely is the risk event to happen? (Probability and frequency?) What would be the impact, cost or consequences of that event occurring? (Economic, political, social?)
© UNCTAD End Next The Risk Management process: Communicate & consult Monitor and review Evaluate the risks Rank the risks according to management priorities, by risk category and rated by likelihood and possible cost or consequence. Determine inherent levels of risk.
© UNCTAD End Next The Risk Management process: Treat the risks Develop and implement a plan with specific counter-measures to address the identified risks. Consider: Priorities (Strategic and operational) Resources (human, financial and technical) Risk acceptance, (i.e., low risks)
© UNCTAD End Next The Risk Management process: Document your risk management plan and describe the reasons behind selecting the risk and for the treatment chosen. Record allocated responsibilities, monitoring or evaluation processes, and assumptions on residual risk. Communicate & consult Monitor and review Treat the risks
© UNCTAD End Next The Risk Management process: Communicate & consult Risk Management policies and decisions must be regularly reviewed. Risk Management policies and decisions must be regularly reviewed. Monitor and review In identifying, prioritising and treating risks, organisations make assumptions and decisions based on situations that are subject to change, (e.g., the business environment, trading patterns, or government policies).
© UNCTAD End Next The Risk Management process: Risk Managers must monitor activities and processes to determine the accuracy of planning assumptions and the effectiveness of the measures taken to treat the risk. Methods can include data evaluation, audit, compliance measurement. Communicate & consult Monitor and review
© UNCTAD End Next The Risk Management process: Establish the context Identify the risks Analyse the risks Evaluate the risks Treat the risks Monitoring and review Communication & consultation
© UNCTAD End Next Customs administrations have turned increasingly to Risk Management as an effective means of meeting national objectives. Administrations provide facilitation while maintaining control over the international movement of goods and persons. Risk management helps in matching Customs priorities to resources. Risk Management in Customs
© UNCTAD End Next International Organisations encourage and support the adoption of modern Customs control techniques, using Risk Management principles., e.g., WTO/Kyoto Convention.WTO/Kyoto Convention. APEC Sub-Committee on Customs Procedures.APEC Sub-Committee on Customs Procedures. Transport Industry representative bodies.Transport Industry representative bodies. Risk Management in Customs
© UNCTAD End Next Risk management within Customs can be strategic, operational or tactical. Risk Management in Customs Strategic: Strategic: Risks to Customs goals and objectives, e.g.,prohibitions and restrictions, (social or economic), health, revenue, environment. - usually longer term strategies
© UNCTAD End Next Risk management within Customs can be strategic, operational or tactical. Risk Management in Customs Operational: Operational: Decisions and action plans on measures taken to deal with the assessed risks. Deployment of resources; monitoring and review. - medium term strategies
© UNCTAD End Next Risk management within Customs can be strategic, operational or tactical. Risk Management in Customs Tactical: Tactical: Used by officers at their workplace, to deal with immediate situations, working within set parameters and to approved procedures. - short term strategies
© UNCTAD End Next Economic benefits, by facilitating the movement of goods, ships, aircraft and people – when rated low risk. Economic benefits, by facilitating the movement of goods, ships, aircraft and people – when rated low risk. Makes more effective use of existing skills and experience – giving better results. Makes more effective use of existing skills and experience – giving better results. Improves the quality of Customs controls – information and accountability. Improves the quality of Customs controls – information and accountability. Risk Management in Customs Why you should use Risk Management:
© UNCTAD End Next The process helps Administrations focus on priorities and in decisions on deploying limited resources to deal with the highest risks. Risk Management in Customs Why you should use Risk Management:
© UNCTAD End Next How do you use it in Customs? The first step is to look at your Customs context. What is the role of Customs? What is the role of Customs? What are your national priorities and the expectations of the government and the public? What are your national priorities and the expectations of the government and the public? What is the nature of your operational environment? What is the nature of your operational environment? Where do you start?
© UNCTAD End Next How do you use it in Customs? The next steps in the Risk Management process are to:- Identify the risks Identify the risks Analyse the risks; and Analyse the risks; and Evaluate the risks, Evaluate the risks, … but, if you are just starting on Risk Management planning: Where does the information come from? Who does this?
© UNCTAD End Next Responsibilities must be allocated: Appoint a Risk Management champion with appropriate qualifications, including experience and analytical skills.Appoint a Risk Management champion with appropriate qualifications, including experience and analytical skills. Form a Risk Management Committee, representative of operational areas.Form a Risk Management Committee, representative of operational areas. Conduct Risk Management Workshops.Conduct Risk Management Workshops. Determine operating procedures.Determine operating procedures. Who does the Risk Assessment?
© UNCTAD End Next 1. Identify commodity or control risks; e.g., high duty rates or quantity controls, the demand for prohibited goods, such as drugs, pornography, traffic in CITES wildlife. 2. Research existing databases and records on commodity and trader histories. 3. Evaluate current procedures to identify potential control weaknesses. Sources of information for Risk Assessments
© UNCTAD End Next After identifying and analysing the risks, you can evaluate. What is the likelihood of the risk event occurring? What is the likelihood of the risk event occurring? Evaluate the risks Almost certainAlmost certain LikelyLikely ModerateModerate UnlikelyUnlikely Rare?Rare? Almost certainAlmost certain LikelyLikely ModerateModerate UnlikelyUnlikely Rare?Rare? What is the consequence if the risk event occurs? ExtremeExtreme Very highVery high ModerateModerate LowLow Negligible?Negligible? ExtremeExtreme Very highVery high ModerateModerate LowLow Negligible?Negligible?
© UNCTAD End Next You need to describe or to quantify exactly what the Likelihood and Consequence terms means to you. This helps in ensuring a consistent approach in future risk assessment and review and monitoring. It promotes a common understanding within the Administration. Evaluate the risks
© UNCTAD End Next After establishing Likelihood andConsequence you can use a table like this to set a level of risk. Evaluate the risks ExtremeVery highModerateLowNegligible Almost certain Severe HighMajorModerate LikelySevereHighMajorSignificantModerate HighMajorSignificantModerateLow UnlikelyMajorSignificantModerateLowVery low RareSignificantModerateLowVery lowVery Low You must define what these risk levels mean to you.
© UNCTAD End Next Low and very low level risks can normally be accepted, subject to on-going monitoring. All other risks are included in the management plan. The plan catalogues the risks, the level of risk, and describes a treatment. The treatment is the action proposed, (and perhaps the resources allocated). Treating the risks
© UNCTAD End Next Treating the risks Targeted selections Development of Development of Risk Profiles Physical examination Industry audits Random examinations Compliance improvement
© UNCTAD End Next Treating the risks A common method of treating risks is to develop risk profiling and targeting systems. This means – in the case of goods – selecting transactions for specific checks, according to trader, agent, origin of goods, commodity code, duty rate, routing, value, etc.
© UNCTAD End Next Treating the risks Risk Profiles are developed as a means of putting risk management into practice at the Operational level. A Risk Profile is normally specific to a Customs office. It describes: The risk areas Assessment of the level of risk The countermeasures adopted Activation date and review dates Means of measuring effectiveness. A Risk Profile is normally specific to a Customs office. It describes: The risk areas Assessment of the level of risk The countermeasures adopted Activation date and review dates Means of measuring effectiveness.
© UNCTAD End Next Treating the risks Using the profile information, consignments of goods, means of transport and people are targeted. The profile information is used as the basis for Selection Criteria. Documents received and processed by Customs, i.e., cargo and passenger manifests, goods declarations, are compared against the Selection Criteria Selection Criteria
© UNCTAD End Next Treating the risks Selections are made by manual checks of documents, or by using automated systems. Selected transactions or movements are subject to the actions detailed in the profile or plan, e.g., physical examination, audit, etc. Selection Criteria Documents and Data Selected movements
© UNCTAD End Next Monitor & Review The initial assessment made of the existence and level of risks must be evaluated on a regular basis. You need to measure the effectiveness of risk profiles and update as necessary. Reliable reporting of examination results Reliable reporting of examination results Compliance measurement activities Compliance measurement activities Feedback from the business community Feedback from the business community Results analysis and data comparisons Results analysis and data comparisons
© UNCTAD End Next The starting point is the Action Plan: 1.Allocate responsibilities, e.g., a Risk Management Champion and a working party. 2.Evaluate how Risk Management processes can be best applied in your national environment. 3.Survey existing skills and do a training needs assessment. 4.Catalogue existing sources of data or information that can help in identifying risks. Using Risk Management
© UNCTAD End Next 5.Flow chart existing processes. 6.Communicate and consult – within Customs, with other Agencies, the trading community and transport industry. 7.Obtain IT tools or set up processes for effectively operating a selectivity system. 8.Provide training in profiling/selectivity skills. 9.Test and gain confidence in the Risk Management process. Using Risk Management
© UNCTAD End This presentation endeavors to cover briefly the concepts and the benefits of using Risk Management practices, particularly within Customs Administrations. The processes and the many control options deserve further study, and many other sources of information on this topic are available. Control AND Facilitation By.. Risk Management End
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