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1 Global Marketing Chapter 1 Introduction to Global Marketing
©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-2 Introduction Global vs. “Regular” Marketing –Scope of activities are outside the home- country market
©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-3 Global Marketing Create value for customers by improving benefits or reducing price –Improve the product –Find new distribution channels –Create better communications –Cut monetary and non-monetary costs and prices Value=Benefits/Price
©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-4 Globalization “Globalization is the inexorable integration of markets, nation-states and technologies to a degree never witnessed before — in a way that is enabling individuals, corporations and nation- states to reach around the world farther, faster, deeper and cheaper than every before, and in a way that is enabling the world to reach into individuals, corporations and nation-states farther, faster, deeper and cheaper than ever before.” Thomas Friedman
©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-5 Global Industries An industry is global to the extent that a company’s industry position in one country is interdependent with its industry position in another country Indicators of globalization: –Ratio of cross-border trade to total worldwide production –Ratio of cross-border investment to total capital investment –Proportion of industry revenue generated by companies that compete in key world regions
©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-6 Competitive Advantage, Globalization, and Global Industries Focus –Concentration and attention on core business and competence “ Nestle is focused: We are food and beverages. We are not running bicycle shops. Even in food we are not in all fields. There are certain areas we do not touch…We have no soft drinks because I have said we will either buy Coca-Cola or we leave it alone. This is focus.” Helmut Maucher, former chairman of Nestlé SA
©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-7 Global Marketing: What It Is and What It Isn’t Single Country Marketing Strategy Target Market Strategy Marketing Mix –Product –Price –Promotion –Place Global Marketing Strategy Global Market Participation Marketing Mix Development –4 P’s: Adapt or Standardize? Concentration of Marketing Activities Coordination of Marketing Activities Integration of Competitive Moves
©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-8 Standardization versus Adaptation Globalization (Standardization) –Developing standardized products marketed worldwide with a standardized marketing mix –Essence of mass marketing Global localization (Adaptation) –Mixing standardization and customization in a way that minimizes costs while maximizing satisfaction –Essence of segmentation –Think globally, act locally
©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-9 Standarization versus Adaptation Arabic Read right to left Chinese “delicious/happiness” The Faces of Coca-Cola Around the World
©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-10 McDonald’s Global Marketing Marketing Mix Element StandardizationLocalized Product Promotion Place Price Big Mac Brand name Advertising Slogan “I’m Loving It” Free-standing Big Mac is $3.10 in U.S. and Turkey McAloo Tikka potato burger (India) Slang Macca’s (Australia) MakDo (Philippines) McJoy magazine, “Hawaii Surfing Hula” promotion (Japan) Home delivery (India) Swiss rail system dining cars $5.21 (Switzerland) $1.31(China)
©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-11 The Importance of Going Global For U.S. companies, 75% of total world market for goods and services is outside the country –Coca-Cola earns 75% of operating income and 2/3 of profit outside of North America For Japanese companies, 85% of world market is outside the country 94% of market potential is outside of Germany for its companies
©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-12 The Fortune Global 500
©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-13 Consumer/Industrial Markets Product/Service Market Size (Billions) Cigarettes$295 Luxury Goods 230 Cosmetics 200 Personal Computers 175 Bottled Water 100 Container Shipping 150 Construction Equip. 90 Crop Seeds 30 CRM Services 6
©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-14 Management Orientations Ethnocentric Orientation – Home country is superior to others – Sees only similarities in other countries – Assumes products and practices that succeed at home will be successful everywhere –Leads to a standardized or extension approach
©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-15 Management Orientations Polycentric Orientation –Each country is unique –Each subsidiary develops its own unique business and marketing strategies –Often referred to as multinational –Leads to a localized or adaptation approach that assumes products must be adapted to local market conditions
©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-16 Management Orientations Regiocentric Orientation –A region is the relevant geographic unit Ex: The NAFTA or European Union market –Some companies serve markets throughout the world but on a regional basis Ex: General Motors had four regions for decades European Union
©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-17 Management Orientations Geocentric Orientation –Entire world is a potential market –Strives for integrated global strategies –Also known as a global or transnational company –Retains an association with the headquarters country –Pursues serving world markets from a single country or sources globally to focus on select country markets –Leads to a combination of extension and adaptation elements
©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-18 Driving Forces Affecting Global Integration and Global Marketing Multilateral trade agreements Converging market needs and wants and the information revolution Transportation and communication improvements Product development costs
©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-19 Driving Forces Affecting Global Integration and Global Marketing Quality –R&D as a percent of sales World economic trends –2008 global crisis –Growing middle class in China, India, Brazil, etc. –Rapid growth in China pre –Movement to free markets worldwide
©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-20 Driving Forces Affecting Global Integration and Global Marketing Leverage –Experience transfers –Scale economies –Resource utilization –Global strategy
©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-21 Restraining Forces Affecting Global Integration and Global Marketing Management myopia Organizational culture National controls Opposition to globalization
©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-22 Overview of Book Part I: Overview of Global Marketing Part II: Environments of Global Marketing Part III: Global Strategy Part IV: Global Considerations of the Marketing Mix Part V: Integrating the Dimensions of Global Marketing
©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-23 Looking Ahead to Chapter 2 The Global Economic Environment
©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Global Marketing McDonalds Russia/Ukraine Ad Sony/US Ad Nokia/Finland Swatch/Swiss.
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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall CHAPTER 8 The Buying Process and Buyer Behavior.
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ECONOMICS IN SOUTHERN AND EASTERN ASIA STANDARD: SS7E8 The student will analyze different economic systems. a. Compare how traditional, command, market.
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