3 Essential QuestionsHow did industrialization change life in the cities?What factors attributed to bad living conditions for the poor?How did political machines influence city life positively and negatively?Who is responsible for helping those who can’t help themselves?
4 Growth of American Cities Industries Set Up Their Factories in CitiesCities Offered Good Transportation & Plenty of WorkersUrbanization – The Growth of Cities
6 Growth of the CitiesMillions of People Migrated (Moved) to American CitiesMillions of Immigrants Came for Jobs!Many Struggling Farmers Moved to Cities for Jobs
7 Technology Helps Cities to Grow Skyscrapers:Helped Millions of People to Live in CitesBessemer Steel Process Made it Cheaper to Make Steel (7x Cheaper!)Steel Was Used to Build Skyscrapers!Very Sturdy! (9/11)Buildings Could Now Be Built Higher & Hold More People
9 Technology Helps Cities to Grow Laying on the Couch, Honk – HonkElevators (1889) Otis Elevator Company Created the 1st ElevatorAll Buildings Used to be Built NO Higher Than 4 FloorsWTC Had 110 Floors
10 Streetcars/Subways Streetcars Improved Transportation in Cities: People Use to Walk & Or Ride Horses/WagonsHow Long Would It Take to Walk From the East to the West Side of NYC?Richmond, Virginia Was the 1st City Ever to Have Streetcars!Chicago Built Subways Above Ground (The “EL”) & NYC Built Subways Underground
11 Streetcars Expand Cities Streetcars/Subways/ Trains Allowed for Cities to ExpandPeople Could Live Farther & Farther Away from CitiesSuburbs Emerged:ValhallaMore People Commuted to the Cities for Work & Entertainment
12 Tenements Tenements Were Overcrowded Apartments (Run-Down) Millions of People Moved into Cities to Find Jobs!Workers Earned Less Than $10 a Week:Not Enough $$$ to Pay For Rent!Moved in with Other Families in Tenements!
13 Dangerous Living Conditions! Tenements Were Extremely Dangerous to Live In:Old BuildingsLandlord NeglectPoor DesignLittle Government ControlLed to Poor Living Conditions!
15 Poor Conditions of Tenements Major Problems Living in Tenements:Overcrowded (Families Shared Apartments)No Garbage Pick UpDumped Garbage into Narrow AlleysNo Fresh AirNo Running WaterSewage Flowed in Open Gutters (Spread Disease)
22 Slums Neighborhoods Full of Tenements & Poverty Most Notorious Slum was the Lower East Side of ManhattanIrony Today?
23 The Social Gospel Movement A Movement For Improving the Lives of the Urban PoorStarted by Protestant Churches2 Major Goals:End Child LaborOpen Up Settlement Houses for the Poor
24 Settlement HousesSettlement Houses Helped the Poor Improve Their Lives:Provided DaycareAllowed Parents to WorkProvided EducationTaught English Classes to ImmigrantsOffered Health Care to the PoorMost Famous Settlement House was the Hull House
25 Jane Addams Jane Addams is the Founder of the HULL HOUSE! Dedicated Her Life to Helping the PoorThe Hull House is the Most Famous Settlement HouseFounded in Chicago, 1889
27 Political MachinesPolitical Machines are Organizations (Usually Corrupt) that Influence Enough Votes to Control a Local GovernmentExchanged Favors for VotesPolitical Machine Role Play!
28 Political Machines (+/-’s) Positives (+’s):Built City ParksBuilt Sewer SystemsBuilt SchoolsBuilt RoadsBuilt OrphanagesHelped Immigrants Get JobsHelped Immigrants Find HousingNegatives (-’s)Gained Votes by Trading for FavorsBroke Rules to Win ElectionsStole $$$Accepted & Gave Bribes
29 Tammany Hall Most Notorious Political Machine of All Time! You Must Know William Marcy “Boss” TweedStole $$$ Millions of Dollars from NYC!
32 Jane Addams Also Fought For Women’s Rights as Workers (Equal Pay) Fought Against Child LaborWorked to Improve Housing Laws & Public Health LawsWas Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931
33 Essential QuestionsHow did industrialization change life in the cities?What factors attributed to bad living conditions for the poor?How did political machines influence city life positively and negatively?Who is responsible for helping those who can’t help themselves?