3What is Temperature?When we think of temperature we think of how hot or cold something is.Temperature – the measure of the average value of kinetic energy of molecules in random motion.
4Think of a glass of water… Its made of molecules that are in random motion.Random = different speeds – some fast, some slowIf they are moving, the molecules have KE.Temperature measures the average value of their movement.
5The more kinetic energy the molecules have, the higher the temperature. High temp = faster moleculesLow temp = slower moleculesEx. Water molecules move faster in a cup of hot water than they do in cold water.
6Thermal Expansion When molecules speed up, they move farther apart. The object expands (stretches)When molecules slow down, they move close together.The object contracts (shrinks)
7Solids: Liquids: Gases: In the summertime power lines will sag, whereas in the winter they will be pulled more tightly.Liquids:You probably been told never to put a glass bottle of soda in the freezer. Why? It can explode and you will have glass all over you freezer.Gases:Place a balloon in a very warm room and it will expand, then place it in a very cold room and it will shrink.
8The amount of expansion or contraction depends on: The type of materialLiquids expand more than solidsThe degree to which temperature changesThe greater the temperature change, the more expansion or contraction
9Measuring Temperature Thermometer – a device used to measure temperatureConsists of a liquid such as mercury or alcohol sealed inside a narrow tube with markings symbolizing degrees.Temperature changes cause the liquid to rise and fall as the liquid expands and contracts.
10Temperature Scales There are three common scales: FahrenheitCelsiusKelvinEach is divided into regular intervals
11Fahrenheit Scale The most common in the U.S. Divided into degrees Fahrenheit (oF)Freezing point of water = 32oFBoiling point of water = 212oFSpace between boiling and freezing is 180 equal degrees.
12Celsius Scale Most commonly used in the rest of the world Divided into degrees Celsius (oC)Freezing point of water = 0oCBoiling point of water = 100oCSpace between boiling and freezing is 100 equal degreesoC are bigger than oF
13Kelvin Scale The SI Unit for temperature Divided into Kelvins (not degrees!)Boiling point of water = 373 KFreezing point of water = 273KAbsolute zero = 0 K (the lowest possible temperature an object can have!)Kelvin and Celsius degrees are the same size!
15Temperature Conversions Kelvin can only be calculated if you know the object’s temperature in oC.K = oC + 273oC = K - 273
16Thermal EnergyIs the sum of the KE and PE of all molecules in an object.All molecules have PE that can be converted into KEThey exert attractive forces to each otherPE increases as molecules are farther apart.
17Temperature Vs. Thermal Energy How hot or cold something feels does not necessarily give you enough information to determine thermal energy.Thermal energy is related to quantity of the molecules!
18ExamplesA glacier and an ice cube have the same temperature, but the glacier has much more thermal energy due to its size.Compare a glacier to a boiling pot of water.Which has a higher temperature?Which has more thermal energy?
20HeatIs thermal energy that is transferred from one object to another when the objects are at different temperaturesThe amount of heat that is transferred when two objects are brought into contact depends on the difference in temperature between the two objects.Heat continues to be transferred until equilibrium is reached (both objects are at the same temperature).
21Transfer of HeatThermal energy always moves from warmer to cooler objects.Heat never flows from a cooler object to a warmer object.The warmer object loses thermal energy and becomes cooler while the cooler object gains thermal energy and becomes warmer until their temperatures are equal.
22There are three ways heat can be transferred: ConductionRadiationConvection
23Conduction The transfer of thermal energy by direct contact Ex: The bottom of a pot on a stove is heated by direct contact between it and the heat sourceOccurs when particles in a material collide with neighboring particles. Energy is passed from molecule to molecule during these collisions.
24Occurs most easily in solids and liquids where atoms and molecules are closer together As a result, heat is transferred more rapidly by conduction in solids and liquids than in gases.
25Radiation The transfer of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves Ex: You feel the warmth of the Sun when standing on the beach.These waves can carry energy through empty space as well as through solids, liquids, and gases.
26ConvectionThe transfer of thermal energy by the movement of molecules from one part of a material to anotherEx: water boiling in a pot on the stoveOccurs most easily in liquids or gases where molecules can move much more easily than in a solidForms convection currents
27Convection CurrentA continuous cycle of heating and rising, cooling and sinkingA substance is heated which makes it less dense and causes it to rise. When it rises it cools, which causes it to become more dense and sink. The process continually repeats itself.
28Natural ConvectionNatural convection occurs when a warmer, less dense fluid is pushed away by a cooler denser fluid.Ex: Wind movement near a lake or ocean is caused when air over land is heated and becomes less dense. Denser cool air rushes in , pushing the warm air up. The cooler air is then heated by the land and the cycle is repeated. You feel the cooler air rushing in as wind.
29Forced ConvectionOccurs when an outside force, such as a fan, pushes a fluid, such as air or water, to make it move and transfer heatEx: Computer use fans to keep electronic components from getting too hot.
30Thermal Conductors Any material that easily transfers heat If a material has some electrons that are not held tightly by the nucleus, they are free to move around and bump into each other, transferring thermal energy.The best thermal conductors are metals, such as gold and copper.
31Thermal Insulators Any material in which heat does not flow easily Liquids and gases are usually better insulators than solids because their particles are farther apart and cannot transfer thermal energy by conduction as easily as a solid.
32Air is a good insulator. Many insulating materials contain air spaces. Good conductors are poor insulators and vice-a-versa.
33Specific HeatThe amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of substance by 1 °CMore heat is needed to change the temperature of a material with a high specific heat than one with a low specific heat.
34Ex: Sand heats up and cools down faster than water. Hotter than the water during the dayCooler than the water at night
35Thermal PollutionThe increase in the temperature of a body of water caused by adding warmer waterSources:Hot water produced by power plants that is released into a body of waterRain falling on hot asphalt that runs off into waterways
36Reducing thermal pollution: Effects:Contains less oxygenCan cause some organisms to become more sensitive to chemical pollutants, parasites, & diseaseReducing thermal pollution:Use cooling towers to cool warm water before it is released into waterways