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COMPARATIVE ANATOMY 3023 By Brian Matchett and Alyson Walaskay.

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Presentation on theme: "COMPARATIVE ANATOMY 3023 By Brian Matchett and Alyson Walaskay."— Presentation transcript:

1 COMPARATIVE ANATOMY 3023 By Brian Matchett and Alyson Walaskay



4 Comparative Anatomy The study of and comparison of body parts of different species

5 Comparative Anatomy Includes: Change, adaptation, and mutation of species The invasion of new territories Species compatibility with surroundings

6 How Can Comparative Anatomy Help Us? Understand our history Consider plans for change Improve animal genetics Preserve endangered species

7 Why Should We be Aware of Comparative Anatomy? Variations in care for animals Differences in animal habits

8 Adaptation Genetic and physiological changes that occur due to pressures or changes in an animal’s environment

9 Adaptation Changes Examples: Forelimb of humans used for manipulating Webbed foot of seal used for swimming Front feet of a mole used for digging

10 Structural Development Homologous Structures Analogous Structures

11 Homologous Structures Have similar structures, but different uses E.g. Turtle leg and bird wing

12 Analogous Structures Body parts similar in use, but different in structure E.g. Bird wing and insect wing

13 Directional Terms Used to describe the positions of structures on the body relative to other structures or locations

14 Cranial – closer to the head of the animal Caudal – closer to the tail Medial – closer to the midline of the limb, trunk or head Lateral – farther away from the midline


16 Dorsal – close rot the top side (back) of the animal Ventral – closer to the bottom side (belly) of the animal Proximal – closer to the attachment of the appendage to the body Distal – farther away from the attachment of the body

17 Comparative Anatomy of Typical Farm Animal Species Includes Skeletal Structures Reproduction Digestive Systems


19 Skeletal Structures Protects vital organs and gives basic form and shape to an animals body

20 Reproduction The production of live, normal offspring


22 Puberty – age at which reproductive organs become functionally operative Gestation – time from breeding or conception of a female until she gives birth to her young Estrus – time for acceptance of the male and normally coincides approximately with ovulation “Heat” Estrous Cycle – Estrus cycle or the time from one estrus to the next

23 Digestion Includes all the organs that are involved in the digestion of food


25 Types of Digestion Monogastric or Simple Stomach Ruminant Avian

26 Monogastric Characterized by the inability to digest roughage efficiently Enzymes used to break food down Includes: humans, swine, rabbits and horses


28 Ruminant Handles the breakdown of large amounts lignified fiber Has four different compartments: –Rumen - Omasum –Reticulum - Abomasum Includes: sheep, cows, goats


30 Avian Designed for grinding hard or encased food Has a gizzard Have no teeth Includes: all birds

31 WEB CITATIONS BSC Courseware sstructs.html sstructs.html Homologous Structures _class/chap06/homologous.html _class/chap06/homologous.html

32 WEB CITATIONS cont. Animal Feeds and Nutrition tract.htm tract.htm Michael's Photo Gallery ml

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