Presentation on theme: "Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Chapter 11 Cultural Influences: Perspectives."— Presentation transcript:
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Chapter 11 Cultural Influences: Perspectives
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Chapter Spotlights Circles of Social Influence Definition of Culture Nature of culture – components Norms, customs, mores, conventions, sanctions, values, beliefs, and rituals The languages of culture Government and Laws Material artifacts Consumer products and cultural meanings
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Circles of Social Influence Humans seen as “social animals” Circles of Social Influence: Culture, Subculture (Co-Culture), Social Class, Reference Groups, and Household or Family Farther the circle is from “you” the “more pervasive” is its influence Farther the circle is from “you” the more subtle is its influence.
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Sociological Influences on Consumer Decision Making People are sensitive to the values, behaviors and beliefs of the people around them. Culture is considered to have a more subtle and more pervasive influence on consumer decision making than any other “Circle of Social Influence.”
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Definition of Culture Culture refers to the patterns of values, beliefs, and learned behaviors that are held in common and transmitted by the members of any given society. Understanding culture is important in marketing internationally.
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Nature of Culture - Components Norms: rules that designate forms of acceptable and unacceptable behavior Customs: behaviors that last over time and are passed down in the family setting (gender roles, holidays, ceremonies at birth, death) Mores: moral standards of behavior Conventions: practices tied to the conduct of everyday life in various settings (foods, clothing, home furnishings, entertaining practices, respect within family/business)
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Components of Culture (continued) Sanctions: taking negative actions against members of a culture who do not conform to the norms, customs, mores or conventions of the society.
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Values Personal values – enduring beliefs that specific modes of conduct or end-states of existence are preferred to other specific modes of conduct or end-states. (This will be discussed in Chapter 6.) Cultural values are reflective of personal values and must be understood to market properly in various cultures
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Other Components of Culture Beliefs – what the members of a culture believe typically originates from one of two sources: Religion The impact of a “national religion” Myths Stories or fables that reflect important values shared by members of a culture; used to teach one or more of these values. Metaphysical, cosmological, psychological, binary opposition
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Rituals Review They are patterns of behavior tied to events that we consider important in our lives. Three characteristics of rituals: They have some special meaning to us They occur in a fixed or predictable manner They are repeated with some regularity
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Types of Rituals Rituals are classified into different categories: Cosmology – religious Cultural values – rites of passage, cultural (festivals, secular holidays, super bowl) Group learning – civic (parades, trials, elections), group (fraternity, office lunch, business interactions), family (mealtimes, bedtimes, Thanksgiving celebration) Individual aims and emotions – personal (household rituals, grooming), gift giving
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Gift Giving Three stages to gift giving: Gestation: being motivated to buy a gift Presentation Reformulation (bonds with recipient adjusted)
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Ritual Artifacts and Scripts Ritual artifacts are those objects needed in order for rituals to be carried out successfully (e.g., floats for a parade, unity candle for a wedding) Ritual scripts are specific procedures that include the sequence of ritual steps and the necessary artifacts.
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 The “Languages” of Culture Words Translation and word meaning issues Colors Color choice that signifies death varies across regions of the world The color red (positive: Argentina, Denmark, China; negative: Nigeria, Germany; feminine: China; masculine: France, Britain; red ink = death in China)
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 The “Languages” of Culture Colors and fashion (colors move “in” and “out” of fashion): clothing, household appliances, automobiles, home electronics, etc.
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 The “Languages” of Culture - Time Self-time, interaction time, institutional time Time styles (individuals and cultures): Approaches: economic, psychological (subjective; always in surplus or shortage, etc.), physiological – “body clock”, measurement Orientation/Horizon: importance of the past, present or future/”distance out” Activity level: monochronic (one activity at a time) versus polychronic (multiple simutaneous activity) behavior Time processing: economic or linear, procedural, circular or cyclical
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 “Languages” of Culture Space, distance, and gestures Symbols Friendship and agreements
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Material Artifacts Physical items that were part of a culture historically or are in existence in today’s society. A culture is made up of: Material characteristics Nonmaterial characteristics Erosions – what’s left behind by past cultures Accretions – things added to the natural environment by a culture
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Consumer products and Cultural Meanings Cultural meaning through the “culturally constituted world”, consumer goods, and individuals having the goods Advertising and fashion carry values, norms, or beliefs, and model culturally meaningful behavior “Fashion system” includes clothing,media, people in media, media shows, opinion leaders, subcultural representatives, etc.
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002 Consumer products and Cultural Meanings Brand user image meaning Possession, exchange, grooming and divestment rituals Clothing, food, exterior/interior of homes, types of transportation used help “tell the story” of a culture