2Midterm Results Score Grade N 42-53 A 11 37-41 B 6 32-36 C 5 27-31 D 130-26F7Top score = 50 Top score for curve = 47 (2 people)
3Verbal Imagery vs Visual Imagery The mind operates upon internal representations of knowledge.How is visual information (imagery) represented in memory?Paivio’s Dual-Code Theory – memory is better if we encode information visually and verbally.Separate representations are maintained for verbal and visual information.
4Behavioral Evidence for Dual Codes Santa compared linear and spatial arrays of:Three geometric objectsThree names of geometric objectsSubjects were asked whether the arrays contained the same objects or names.Subjects were faster when shapes were in the same spatial arrangement but faster when words were linear.
7Evidence From Brain Imaging Subjects were asked to mentally rehearse:A word jingleNavigating their neighborhoodIncreased blood flow occurred in different areas of the brain, depending upon the task.The same brain areas were active as when actually speaking or seeing.
9Mental RotationShepard – two-dimensional and three-dimensional mental images are rotated in the same way as actual objects.The more an object is rotated, the longer it takes to respond in a same/different task.Georgopoulos et al. – measured neurons firing in monkey brains when moving a handle.Intermediate cells fire showing rotation.
12Image ScanningBrooks – subjects scanned imagined diagrams (like letter F) and noted outside corners, or sentences noting nouns.Respond by saying “yes” or “no”Tap left hand for “yes,” right hand for “no”Point to Y or N on a sheetScanning a sheet for Y’s & N’s conflicted with scanning the mental image.Conflict is spatial not visual.
13Mentally imagine the F and scan the outline beginning at the *. Point to Y if an outside corner is present or N if not.
15Comparing Visual Quantities Time to make a judgment decreases as the difference in size between objects increases.The smaller the difference the longer it takes to make a judgment.Which is larger:moose or roach, wolf or lion?The same pattern emerges when asked to judge actual differences, line lengths.
16Which is bigger?The closer in size, two animals are, the longer it takes to decide which is bigger.
17Two Types of ImageryImages involving visual properties (what) -- impaired with temporal damage.Images involving spatial properties (where) – impaired with parietal damage.Bilateral temporal lobe damage:Difficulty judging color, size, shape.No deficit in mental rotation, image or letter scanning, judgment of relative positions.
18Are Images Like Perception? A series of experiments to compare perception and imagery:Imagining transformations of mental images vs perceived stimuli.Ponzo illusions occur with imagery.Difficulty with reversible figures – depends on instructions, harder.MRI plots show same brain activity.
19Similar Brain Activity Fusiform face areaParahippocampal place area
20Is Imagery Epiphenomenal? Does imagery play a functional role in thinking or is it a subjective side-effect?Kosslyn et al. showed that subjects could make judgments about arrays held in mind:Which has longer stripes?Visual regions (V17) became active during imagery.
21Cognitive Maps Two kinds of maps: Route map – indicates places and turns, but not all landmarks.Survey map – shows all relevant portions of space, not just route.Adults produce survey maps, kids produce route maps.Survey maps more versatile.
22Examples Disneyland to Cal Poly Pomona via Yahoo Maps
23NavigationNavigation is complicated by the need to tie together different kinds of mental representations.Egocentric representation – space “as we see it”Allocentric representation – not specific to a particular viewpointMost maps are allocentric
25Thinking About MapsPeople rotate physical maps to fit their egocentric perspective.When the map itself cannot be rotated, extra processing time shows that people rotate an image of the map in their heads.Cognitive maps show no orientation effects.Allocentric representations are maintained by the hippocampus.
26Map Distortions Which is farther east: San Diego or Reno? People make wrong guesses because they reason from the positions of the states, not cities.Relative positions of larger areas are compared, not details – hierarchical chunking.
27Which is farther East: San Diego or Reno? Which is farther North: Seattle or Montreal?Which is farther West: the Atlantic or the Pacific entrance to the Panama Canal?
29Translating Verbal Descriptions Subjects were asked to read passages, rotate themselves and make judgments:Fastest when making above-below judgments, slower with right-left.Verbal directions (survey or route) are as good as using actual maps.
30Franklin & Tversky’s Study Some directions are faster to interpret verbally and orient ourselves in than others.