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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY"— Presentation transcript:

Chapter 5 Perception

2 At the end of this Chapter you should be able to:
Understand what Distance Perception is Understand what Motion Perception is Understand what Form Perception is Learn about Attention Learn about Visual Illusions

3 Visual Perception The retinal image is only two-dimensional; height and width... From the two-dimensional images that fall on our retinas we somehow are able to see three-dimensional objects.


5 Visual Perception Seeing objects in three dimensions, or depth perception, allows us to estimate distances between those objects and us.

6 Visual Perception Psychologists are particularly interested in the cues which enable people to perceive depth and distance. These cues may be monocular, effective when using one eye as well as two, or binocular, requiring the usage of both eyes.

7 Depth & Distance Perception
Depth Perception: Ability to see three-dimensional space and to accurately judge distances Depth Cues: Features that supply information about distance and space.

8 Depth & Distance Cues Binocular cues
We compare the retinal image in one eye to the retinal image in the other; they differ: each eye is a slightly different distance from an object in the world

9 Depth & Distance Cues Monocular cues Interposition Linear perspective
Texture Gradients Relative Size Light and Shadow Motion Parallax

10 Binocular disparity The disparity between the views serves as a powerful cue for depth

11 Monocular Cues: Interposition
Interposition: When one object partly blocks your view of another, you perceive the partially blocked object as farther away

12 Monocular Cues: Interposition
Interposition: The fact that mailbox blocks the view is a powerful cue that the mailbox must be closer to the observer than the sport car is

13 Monocular Cues: Interposition
Madonna of the Magnificat by Sandro Botticelli.

14 Monocular Cues: Linear Perspective
Linear Perspective: Parallel lines that are known to be the same distance apart appear to grow closer together, or converge, as they recede into the distance

15 Monocular Cues: Linear Perspective

16 Monocular Cues: Texture Gradient
Texture Gradients: The texture of objects tend to become smoother as the object gets farther away, suggesting that more detailed textured objects are closer. 

17 Monocular Cues: Relative Size
•Relative size: Larger objects are perceived as being closer to the viewer, and smaller objects as being farther away

18 Monocular Cues: Relative Size

19 Monocular Cues: Light and Shadow
Monocular cues: light and shadow: (A) Eight circular objects. To most viewers, the one in the middle looks concave, indented, whereas other seven look as if they are bulging out. (B) The same figure rotated 180 degrees. Now, the middle object looks convex, while others seem concave. The reason is the location of the shadow. If the shadow is at the bottom, the object looks convex, if the shadow is at the top, the the object looks concave.

20 Monocular Cues: Light and Shadow

21 Monocular Cues: Motion Parallax
When you ride in a moving vehicle and look at the side window, the objects you see appear outside move in opposite direction Objects seem to be moving in different speeds-the ones that are closer to you seem to move faster, whereas objects far behind seem to move slower

22 Monocular Cues: Motion Parallax

23 Perceptual Constancy The tendency to perceive objects as maintaining stable properties (e.g., size, shape, brightness, and color) despite differences in distance, viewing angle, and lighting

24 Size Constancy Size constancy refers to our ability to see objects as maintaining the same size even when our distance from them makes things appear larger or smaller. 

25 Shape constancy    Shape Constancy: Perceiving objects as having a stable or unchanging shape regardless of changes in the retinal image resulting from differences in viewing angle

26 VIDEO of Julian Beever, an English artist, who paints sidewalks in an amazing 3-D way....

27 Motion Perception Perception of an event -motion- rather than an object Motion tells us what the object is doing.

28 Apparent motion When intervals between images occur at correct timing (not too far apart in time) we perceive motion This principle used to create ‘motion’ from stills

29 Apparent motion In movies, when still pictures are put together, it produces the sensation of movement for the viewer (audience). Even though there is no ACTUAL movement. We do not only detect motion but we also interpret it.


31 Apparent Movement

32 Apparent motion Motion

33 What about the variability in objects that we see?
The same animal but the features look different. So how can we classify all of them as a giraffe?

34 What about the variability in objects that we see?
We recognize giraffes as being giraffes whether we see them from the side, or the front, or close up, or from far away. Do we actually pay attention to every detail (feature)? We only interpret crucial information. We don’t have time in the real-world to pay attention to every little detail. Otherwise we cannot survive!

35 Form Perception Detecting object features (parts)
The importance of organization Perceptual parsing Separating the figure from the ground

36 Organization’s role in perception
Features: some we ignore, some we attend to How do we decide whether to ignore or attend? We interpret some features as being part of the object, other features as irrelevant How do we group together features that belong with each other?

37 A hidden figure

38 Missing features


40 Gestalt Psychology The German word "Gestalt" roughly means to "whole" or "form" “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.”  In order to interpret what we receive through our senses, we attempt to organize this information into certain groups.  Sense of shape: derived from the whole, not the sum of its parts

41 Gestalt principles organization
Perceptual parsing: Segregating the “scene” into its constituent objects The first step to organizing Gestalt principles of organization: Issues of figure/ground Similarity Proximity Good continuation “subjective contours”

42 Perseptual Parsing


44 Grouping by similarity

45 Grouping by proximity

46 Good Continuation

47 Subjective contours

48 Gestalt psychology Important: Is the object figure or ground?
Our interpretation of figure / ground will influence how we perceive an object

49 Reversible figure-ground pattern



52 The classical approach to perception
Emphasis on the active, constructive role of the perceiver, who routinely: Resolves ambiguous figures Determines identity of objects based on contextual clues and previous knowledge Determines identity of objects based on contextual clues

53 Ambiguous Necker Cube

54 Contextual clues (and previous knowledge)

55 Illusions: How could we make such mistakes?
Cues sometimes cause an over-estimate or under-estimate; Slight over/under interpretations can cause us to misinterpret the information we receive Usually: perceptions are accurate are based on relevant experience reflect the world we live in

56 The Ponzo Illusion






62 Brightness Illusion


64 Perceptual selection: Attention
What starts the synchrony? One possible mechanisms: ATTENTION Selective control of orientation Selective looking Difficult when target represents multiple, rather than a single, feature

65 VIDEO on Attention 1(when you do not expect to see any changes) VIDEO on Attention 2 (when you expect to see changes)

66 Some final thoughts: Seeing, knowing, and the perceiver’s active role
Perception is not knowledge Knowledge and perception are mutually influenced, but are not the same thing: the perceiver and the knower are distinct in many instances

67 In this experiment, subjects were asked to keep the track of the ball players in white shirts. Intent on their task, the subjects were not paying any attention to the black shirted players, even though they are looking directly at them. AND THEY ALSO FAILED TO SEE .....

68 VIDEO about the blind Turkish artist Eşref Armağan

69 Web Links for Optical Illusions
Mueller-Lyer Illusion Brightness Illusion Checker-Shadow Illusion

70 Attention Demos The Stroop Effect

71 As fast as you can, read the names
of the colors

72 As fast as you can, (don’t read the word) but read the name of the color of the word.

73 As fast as you can, (don’t read the word) but read the name of the color of the word.

74 As fast as you can, (don’t read the word) but read the name of the color of the word.


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