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Chapter 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem http://www.gcse.com/fm/braking_distance_answer.htm http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6uuwbRPWnWU&feature=related http://www.veoh.com/browse/videos/category/entertainment/watch/v7 0742516sqFsJS2#

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The work-energy theorem states that whenever work is done, energy changes. 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem Work = ∆KE Work equals the change in kinetic energy.

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Calculating Stopping Distance Work = change in KE, can be rewritten… Fd = ½ mv 2 What is the stopping distance for a 650 kg car that is traveling 5 m/s if 4,500 N of braking force is applied? d = ½ mv 2 F d = 1.8 m How fast is 5 m/s? 11 mph Multiply 5 m/s by 2.2 This stopping distance does not take into account the reaction time.

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Calculating Stopping Distance Calculate the stopping distance for the same car that travels at 10 m/s. 7.2 m. How does this stopping distance compare with the stopping distance at 5 m/s? It is four times greater! Double the speed, quadruple the stopping distance.

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Calculate Stopping Distance Fd = ½ mv 2 - Calculate the difference in stopping distance for a car that travels at 30 mph and the same car that travels 60 mph. Assume that the mass of the car is 800 kg and the braking force is 5000 N. Show your work and analyze your results. How does speed influence stopping distance?

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For moving objects such as cars: The more kinetic energy it has, the more work is required to stop it. Twice as much kinetic energy means twice as much work. Brakes do work on wheels (you do work by pushing the brake pedal). When a car brakes, the work is the friction force (supplied by the brakes) multiplied by the distance over which the friction force acts. KE is transformed by work (friction) into thermal energy, sound energy and larger-scale vibrations. 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem

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Kinetic energy often appears hidden in different forms of energy, such as heat, sound, light, electricity and large-scale vibrations. All require work, and the energy required to do this work is supplied by the kinetic energy of the moving object. Random molecular motion is sensed as heat. Sound consists of molecules vibrating in rhythmic patterns. Light energy originates in the motion of electrons within atoms. Electrons in motion make electric currents. Larger-scale vibrations require energy to occur 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem

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Due to friction, energy is transferred both into the floor and into the tire when the bicycle skids to a stop. a.An infrared camera reveals the heated tire track on the floor. 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem

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Due to friction, energy is transferred both into the floor and into the tire when the bicycle skids to a stop. a.An infrared camera reveals the heated tire track on the floor. b.The warmth of the tire is also revealed. 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem kinetic energy is transformed into thermal energy, sound and vibrations, which represent work done to slow the bike (Fd)

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A car moving at twice the speed of another has four times as much kinetic energy, and will require four times as much work to stop. The frictional force is nearly the same for both cars, so the faster one takes four times as much distance to stop. Kinetic energy depends on speed squared. 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem

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Typical stopping distances for cars equipped with antilock brakes traveling at various speeds. The work done to stop the car is friction force × distance of slide. 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem

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Typical stopping distances for cars equipped with antilock brakes traveling at various speeds. The work done to stop the car is friction force × distance of slide. 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem

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Typical stopping distances for cars equipped with antilock brakes traveling at various speeds. The work done to stop the car is friction force × distance of slide. 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem

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think! A friend says that if you do 100 J of work on a moving cart, the cart will gain 100 J of KE. Another friend says this depends on whether or not there is friction. What is your opinion of these statements? 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem

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think! A friend says that if you do 100 J of work on a moving cart, the cart will gain 100 J of KE. Another friend says this depends on whether or not there is friction. What is your opinion of these statements? Answer: Careful. Although you do 100 J of work on the cart, this may not mean the cart gains 100 J of KE. How much KE the cart gains depends on the net work done on it. 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem

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think! When the brakes of a car are locked, the car skids to a stop. How much farther will the car skid if it’s moving 3 times as fast? 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem

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think! When the brakes of a car are locked, the car skids to a stop. How much farther will the car skid if it’s moving 3 times as fast? Answer: Nine times farther. The car has nine times as much kinetic energy when it travels three times as fast: 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem

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What is the work-energy theorem? 9.6 Work-Energy Theorem

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Work and Energy. Work… …is the product of the magnitude of displacement times the component of force parallel to the displacement. W = F ‖ d Units: N.

Work and Energy. Work… …is the product of the magnitude of displacement times the component of force parallel to the displacement. W = F ‖ d Units: N.

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