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ASTR-1010 Planetary Astronomy Day 7

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Announcements Read Chapter 3 Homework Chapter 3 will be due Thurs Sept. 23 Exam 1 -- Thursday Sept. 23

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Kepler’s 2 nd Law Kepler’s 3 rd Law Ranking Tasks

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Johannes Kepler 1571 - 1630

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Johannes Kepler 1571 - 1630 is Known for - 1.First telescope observations of the sun 2.First sun centered scientific model of the solar system or universe 3.Being the world’s best naked-eye astronomer 4.Creating first a theoretical model to explain planetary motions 5.Creating first a theoretical model for explaining gravity

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Johannes Kepler 1571 – 1630 Kepler’s Three Laws of Planetary Motion

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Eccentricity, e how squashed or out of round the ellipse is a number ranging from 0 for a circle to 1 for a straight line e = 0.02 e = 0.7 e = 0.9

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Kepler’s First Law: The orbit of a planet about the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus.

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What is the shape of Earth’s orbit around the Sun? Earth, e = 0.017

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The Second and Third Laws The Second Law tells us what a particular planet does when it orbits a Star –The planet will move faster when it is close to the Sun and slower when it is farther from the Sun The Third Law how the orbital periods are related to the orbital distances for all the planets in the Solar System –planets that are in an orbit located near the Sun have short orbital periods –planets that are in an orbit located far from the Sun have long orbital periods

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SECOND LAW A line drawn from the planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times orbital speed is not constant for an ellipse only for a circle planets move faster when near the Sun (perihelion) planets move slower when they are far from the Sun (aphelion)

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Kepler’s Second Law: A line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time.

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SECOND LAW The speed a planet travels during its orbit is related to the distance from the star –When the planet is near the sun the planet goes faster than when the planet is farther from the sun Planet travels fast here Planet travels slow here

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Lecture Tutorial But first … MOVE to a new seat. At LEAST 2 rows (front – back) of where you are now At LEAST 2 seats away from the people sitting next to you (front, back, sides)

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Lecture – Tutorial Kepler’s 2 nd Law: pg 21 Work with a partner! Read the instructions and questions carefully. Discuss the concepts and your answers with one another. Come to a consensus answer you both agree on. If you get stuck or are not sure of your answer, ask another group. You have 10 minutes!

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According to Kepler’s second law, a planet with an orbit like Earth’s would: A. move faster when further from the Sun. B. move slower when closer to the Sun. C. experience a dramatic change in orbital speed from month to month. D. experience very little change in orbital speed over the course of the year. E. none of the above.

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Kepler’s second law says “a line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal amounts of time.” Which of the following statements means nearly the same thing? A. Planets move fastest when they are moving toward the Sun. B. Planets move equal distances throughout their orbit of the Sun. C. Planets move slowest when they are moving away from the Sun. D. Planets travel farther in a given time when they are closer to the Sun. E. Planets move the same speed at all points during their orbit of the Sun.

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THIRD LAW The size of the orbit determines the orbital period –planets that orbit near the Sun orbit with shorter periods than planets that are far from the Sun

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THIRD LAW The size of the orbit determines the orbital period –planets that orbit near the Sun orbit with shorter periods than planets that are far from the Sun a 3 AU = P 2 years

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THIRD LAW The size of the orbit determines the orbital period –planets that orbit near the Sun orbit with shorter periods than planets that are far from the Sun p = 1 year p = ~ 12 years

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THIRD LAW The size of the orbit determines the orbital period –planets that orbit near the Sun orbit with shorter periods than planets that are far from the Sun –MASS DOES NOT MATTER Both have p = 1 year

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Lecture – Tutorial Kepler’s 3 rd Law: pg 25 Work with a partner! Read the instructions and questions carefully. Discuss the concepts and your answers with one another. Come to a consensus answer you both agree on. If you get stuck or are not sure of your answer, ask another group. You have 10 minutes here… finish at home if need be

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Which of the following best describes what would happen to a planet’s orbital speed if it’s mass were doubled but it stayed at the same orbital distance? A.It would orbit half as fast. B.It would orbit less that half as fast. C.It would orbit twice as fast. D.It would orbit more than twice as fast. E.It would orbit with the same speed.

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If a small weather satellite and the large International Space Station are orbiting Earth at the same altitude above Earth’s surface, which of the following is true? A.The large space station has a longer orbital period. B.The small weather satellite has a longer orbital period. C.Each has the same orbital period

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