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Supernovas, Dark Energy, and an Accelerating Universe: What Next? Saul Perlmutter Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

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Abel 370: deep space image

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The Thinker

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Basic concepts

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Me and audience

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Sun 8 minutes ago

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Nearest star & earth orbit

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Nearest galaxy & first evidence of humans

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Nearest clusters & dinosaurs

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Abel 370: deep space image

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Basic concepts: expanding universe

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Picture of Einstein

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Einstein 1920 (3 years after)

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Prism picture

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Frauenhoffer’s spectrum of sun

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Through prism

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Through prism, redshifted

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Doppler shift picture Object receding: Long RED waves Object approaching: Short BLUE waves

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Hubble’s original Hubble diagram

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Blank Slide Show Transparencies

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How much is this expansion? 50 km/sec/Mpc How much growth is this? I grow an angstrom/year But –in fact– things that are bound don’t expand. Photons do! How fast is this expansion?

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Basic concepts: Redshift

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Stretched wavelengths

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Basic concepts: Standard Candle

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Hubble’s original Hubble diagram

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Candles

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Basic concepts: Age of Universe

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Blank Slide Show Transparencies

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age of the universe if it had always expanded at today’s rate distance between galaxies is growing, but slower, if the universe is decelerating age of the universe Age from H0

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Future possibilities: expand/collapse

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Basic concepts

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How to measure cosm (More total expansion since light left the Standard Candle) FAINTER (Farther) (Further back in time) Empty More redshift = Faster expansion in past = Expansion is slowing = More mass in universe Finite Borderline

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Picture of accretion on WD star

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lightcurve MPEG movie

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3-panel MPEG movie

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SNe Ia lightcurves (matched)

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Through prism

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3-panel MPEG movie

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NYT: stretched spectrum matches

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Problems with SNe Ia

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Strategy (simple)

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CTIO site

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CTIO 4m dome

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Inside CTIO 4m

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Blank Slide Show Transparencies

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Before/after & HST

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Strategy with world

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How to measure cosm (More total expansion since light left the Standard Candle) FAINTER (Farther) (Further back in time) Empty Universe Eventually Recollapses Finite Borderline

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Our data on Hubble diagram Universe Eventually Recollapses (More total expansion since light left the Standard Candle) FAINTER (Farther) (Further back in time) Supernova Cosmology Project Calan/Tololo Survey relative brightness MORE REDSHIFT

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The Implications of an Accelerating Universe

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Future possibilities: expand/collapse

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Future with accelerating universe Accelerating Universe

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The Implications of an Accelerating Universe

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Composition of the Cosmos Dark Energy: 65% Dark Matter: 30%

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Montage of Magazine covers Breakthrough of the Year:

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Quotes from Theorists November 30, 1999

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“SNAP”: SuperNova Acceleration Probe

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Assembling SNAP Movie courtesy of Hytec

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SNAP Hubble diagram

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N.Y. Times weighs in on Dark Energy April 10, 2001

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Future with accelerating universe Accelerating Universe

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Expansion History of the Universe

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The Expansion History of the Universe

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Blank Slide

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Quinten Quartet

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Blank Slide

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Hubble diagram of our data

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Time Magazine weighs in on Dark Energy Time Magazine 4/16/01

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Telescope Assembly Movie courtesy of Hytec

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SNAP

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Picture of orbiting HST

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New Yorker cartoon: chicken little

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Extrapolate age from HO

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How to measure cosmology

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