Presentation on theme: "22 Enlightenment and Revolution, 1550–1789 The Scientific Revolution"— Presentation transcript:
122 Enlightenment and Revolution, 1550–1789 The Scientific Revolution QUIT22CHAPTEREnlightenment andRevolution, 1550–1789Chapter OverviewTime Line1The Scientific RevolutionMAPSECTION2The Enlightenment in EuropeSECTIONSECTION3The Spread of Enlightenment IdeasGRAPH4American Revolution: The Birth of a RepublicSECTIONVisual Summary
222 Enlightenment and Revolution, 1550–1789 HOME22CHAPTEREnlightenment andRevolution, 1550–1789Chapter OverviewIn Europe, scientists question old ideas and use reason to make discoveries about the natural world. Philosophers support the use of reason to reform government, religion, and society. Enlightenment ideas are used to create a federal government in the newly created United States.
322 Enlightenment and Revolution, 1550–1789 HOME Time Line 1550 1789 CHAPTEREnlightenment andRevolution, 1550–1789Time Line1543 Copernicus publishes heliocentric theory.1628 William Harvey describes heart function.1690 John Locke defines natural rights.1762 Catherine the Great rules Russia.155017891609 Galileo observes heavens through telescope.1687 Newton publishes law of gravity.1748 Montesquieu describes separation of powers.
4The Scientific Revolution Key Idea 1 HOME1The ScientificRevolutionMAPKey IdeaThe Scientific Revolution begins as scientists replace old ideas with new theories. New approaches to science include using observation and experiments to develop theories. In astronomy, scientists challenge the earth-centered model of the universe.OverviewAssessment
5The Scientific Revolution Overview 1 • Scientific Revolution HOME1The ScientificRevolutionMAPTERMS & NAMESOverview• Scientific Revolution• Nicolaus Copernicus• heliocentric theory• Johannes Kepler• Galileo Galilei• scientific method• Francis Bacon• René Descartes• Isaac NewtonMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWIn the mid-1500s, scientists began to question accepted beliefs and make new theories based on experimentation.Scientists’ questioning led to the development of the scientific method still in use today.Assessment
6Causes of the Scientific Revolution HOME1The ScientificRevolutionMAPSection1Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Explain the events and circumstances that led to the Scientific Revolution.Causes of the Scientific RevolutionRenaissance discovery of new classical manuscripts leads scholars to question accepted knowledge.Discoveries of Copernicus and other scientists challenge accepted thinking.The printing press spreads ideas.Exploration broadens European horizons.continued . . .
7The Scientific Revolution 1 1 HOME1The ScientificRevolutionMAPSection1Assessment2. “If I have seen farther than others,” said Newton, “it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants.” Who were the giants to whom Newton was referring? Could this be said of any scientific accomplishment? Explain.ANSWERPossible Response:Giants were Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo. Yes, scientific discoveries give scientists a clearer understanding of how the world works. New discoveries lead to further questions for investigation and more discoveries.End of Section 1
8The Enlightenment in Europe Key Idea 2 HOME2The Enlightenmentin EuropeKey IdeaEnlightenment philosophers admire scientists’ use of reason to understand the natural world. These philosophers promote the use of reason to understand government, religion, education, and economics. They advocate government reform and social improvement.OverviewAssessment
9The Enlightenment in Europe Overview 2 • Enlightenment HOME2The Enlightenmentin EuropeTERMS & NAMESOverview• Enlightenment• social contract• John Locke• natural rights• philosophe• Voltaire• Montesquieu• separation of powers• Jean Jacques Rousseau• Mary WollstonecraftMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWA revolution in intellectual activity changed Europeans’ view of government and society.Freedoms and some forms of government in many countries today are a result of Enlightenment thinking.Assessment
10The Enlightenment in Europe 2 2 HOME2The Enlightenmentin EuropeSection2Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the important ideas of Hobbes, Locke, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Beccaria, and Wollstonecraft.ThinkerKey IdeaHobbesSocial contractLockeConsent of the governedVoltaireToleranceMontesquieuSeparation of powersRousseauGovernment by general willBeccariaAbolition of tortureWollstonecraftAccess to education for womencontinued . . .
11The Enlightenment in Europe 2 2 HOME2The Enlightenmentin EuropeSection2Assessment2. For each of the statements below, identify who said it and explain what it means. Then say how each viewpoint reflects Enlightenment ideas.• “Power should be a check to power.”• “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.”• “Let women share the rights and she will emulate the virtues of men.”ANSWERPossible Responses:“Power”—Montesquieu; each branch of government should limit power of other branches.“Man”—Rousseau; civilization corrupted the state of nature.“Let women”—Wollstonecraft; give women equal rights and they will display men’s goodness.continued . . .
12The Enlightenment in Europe 2 2 HOME2The Enlightenmentin EuropeSection2Assessment3. Compare the views of Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau on government. How do their differing ideas reflect their understanding of human behavior? THINK ABOUT• how each philosopher viewed the “state of nature”• what each considered the source of a government’s authorityANSWERPossible Responses:Hobbes—humans are naturally selfish and wicked; governments keep order.Locke—humans are naturally able to govern themselves; favored self-government.Rousseau—people are naturally good; society corrupts them; power comes from the general will.End of Section 2
13The Spread of Enlightenment Ideas Key Idea 3 HOME3The Spread ofEnlightenment IdeasGRAPHKey IdeaEnlightenment ideas circulate in pamphlets and formal discussions. The new ideals of order and reason are reflected in the arts and music. European monarchs make limited reforms based on Enlightenment ideas.OverviewAssessment
14The Spread of Enlightenment Ideas Overview 3 • salon • baroque HOME3The Spread ofEnlightenment IdeasGRAPHTERMS & NAMESOverview• salon• baroque• neoclassical• enlightened despot• Catherine the GreatMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWEnlightenment ideas spread through the Western world and profoundly influenced the arts and government.An “enlightened” problem-solving approach to government and society prevails in modern civilization today.Assessment
15Spread of Enlightenment Ideas HOME3The Spread ofEnlightenment IdeasGRAPHSection3Assessment1. Give examples for each of the following topics related to the spread of Enlightenment: (a) circulation of ideas; (b) art and literature; and (c) monarchy.Circulation of IdeasArt and LiteratureMonarchySpread of Enlightenment IdeasSalons, Encyclopedia, books, letters, magazines, pamphletsNeoclassical art, classical music, novelEnlightened despots, Frederick the Great, Joseph II, Catherine the Greatcontinued . . .
16The Spread of Enlightenment Ideas 3 3 HOME3The Spread ofEnlightenment IdeasGRAPHSection3Assessment2. What advantages do you think salons had over earlier forms of communication in spreading new ideas?THINK ABOUT• who hosted the salons and where they were held• who was invited to the salons• church and state influence on publishing and educationANSWERPossible Response:Salons were hosted by wealthy middle-class women, who had an interest in educating themselves; many great artists and thinkers gathered to share ideas; salons were held in private homes, so guests could speak freely without the threat of jail or exile.End of Section 3
17American Revolution: The Birth of a Republic Key Idea 4 HOME4American Revolution:The Birth of a RepublicKey IdeaColonists resist the laws and taxes imposed by the British. Colonial leaders use Enlightenment ideas to justify independence from Britain, and, after winning the Revolution, create a federal government.OverviewAssessment
18American Revolution: The Birth of a Republic Overview 4 HOME4American Revolution:The Birth of a RepublicTERMS & NAMESOverview• Declaration of Independence• Thomas Jefferson• checks and balances• federal system• Bill of RightsMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWEnlightenment ideas helped spur the American colonies to create a new nation.The revolution created a republic, the United States of America, that became a model for many nations of the world.Assessment
19American Revolution: The Birth of a Republic 4 4 HOME4American Revolution:The Birth of a RepublicSection4Assessment1. List problems faced by the Americans as colonists and in shaping their republic. Then, explain their actions and decisions to solve those problems.ProblemSolutionNavigation ActsSmugglingStamp ActBoycottImport tax on teaBoston Tea PartyWeaknesses of the Articles of ConfederationConstitutional ConventionDistrust of central governmentFederal systemcontinued . . .
20American Revolution: The Birth of a Republic 4 4 HOME4American Revolution:The Birth of a RepublicSection4Assessment2. How does the opening statement from the Declaration of Independence reflect enlightened thinking?ANSWERPossible Response:It reflects the supremacy of reason, and shows a belief in human progress. It also includes the ideas that humans have natural rights, and that a government gets its power from the consent of the governed.End of Section 4