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Enlightenment and Revolution, 1550–1789 QUIT Chapter Overview Time Line Visual Summary SECTION The Scientific Revolution 1 SECTION The Enlightenment in.

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Presentation on theme: "Enlightenment and Revolution, 1550–1789 QUIT Chapter Overview Time Line Visual Summary SECTION The Scientific Revolution 1 SECTION The Enlightenment in."— Presentation transcript:

1 Enlightenment and Revolution, 1550–1789 QUIT Chapter Overview Time Line Visual Summary SECTION The Scientific Revolution 1 SECTION The Enlightenment in Europe 2 SECTION The Spread of Enlightenment Ideas 3 SECTION American Revolution: The Birth of a Republic 4 22 CHAPTER MAP GRAPH

2 HOME Chapter Overview In Europe, scientists question old ideas and use reason to make discoveries about the natural world. Philosophers support the use of reason to reform government, religion, and society. Enlightenment ideas are used to create a federal government in the newly created United States. Enlightenment and Revolution, 1550– CHAPTER

3 1609 Galileo observes heavens through telescope Newton publishes law of gravity John Locke defines natural rights. Enlightenment and Revolution, 1550– CHAPTER Time Line HOME 1543 Copernicus publishes heliocentric theory William Harvey describes heart function Montesquieu describes separation of powers Catherine the Great rules Russia.

4 The Scientific Revolution begins as scientists replace old ideas with new theories. New approaches to science include using observation and experiments to develop theories. In astronomy, scientists challenge the earth-centered model of the universe. Overview Assessment Key Idea The Scientific Revolution 1 MAP HOME

5 MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW In the mid-1500s, scientists began to question accepted beliefs and make new theories based on experimentation. Scientists’ questioning led to the development of the scientific method still in use today. Overview The Scientific Revolution 1 Assessment Scientific Revolution Nicolaus Copernicus heliocentric theory Johannes Kepler Galileo Galilei scientific method Francis Bacon René Descartes Isaac Newton TERMS & NAMES HOME MAP

6 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Explain the events and circumstances that led to the Scientific Revolution. The Scientific Revolution 1 Section 1 Assessment continued... HOME MAP Causes of the Scientific Revolution Renaissance discovery of new classical manuscripts leads scholars to question accepted knowledge. Discoveries of Copernicus and other scientists challenge accepted thinking. Exploration broadens European horizons. The printing press spreads ideas.

7 2. “If I have seen farther than others,” said Newton, “it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants.” Who were the giants to whom Newton was referring? Could this be said of any scientific accomplishment? Explain. Section The Scientific Revolution 1 1 Assessment ANSWER Giants were Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo. Yes, scientific discoveries give scientists a clearer understanding of how the world works. New discoveries lead to further questions for investigation and more discoveries. Possible Response: HOME MAP End of Section 1

8 Enlightenment philosophers admire scientists’ use of reason to understand the natural world. These philosophers promote the use of reason to understand government, religion, education, and economics. They advocate government reform and social improvement. Overview Assessment Key Idea The Enlightenment in Europe 2 HOME

9 The Enlightenment in Europe 2 A revolution in intellectual activity changed Europeans’ view of government and society. Freedoms and some forms of government in many countries today are a result of Enlightenment thinking. Overview Assessment Enlightenment social contract John Locke natural rights philosophe Voltaire Montesquieu separation of powers Jean Jacques Rousseau Mary Wollstonecraft MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME

10 The Enlightenment in Europe 2 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the important ideas of Hobbes, Locke, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Beccaria, and Wollstonecraft. Section 2 Assessment continued... HOME Thinker Key Idea HobbesSocial contract LockeConsent of the governed VoltaireTolerance MontesquieuSeparation of powers RousseauGovernment by general will BeccariaAbolition of torture WollstonecraftAccess to education for women

11 The Enlightenment in Europe 2 2. For each of the statements below, identify who said it and explain what it means. Then say how each viewpoint reflects Enlightenment ideas. Section 2 Assessment “Power should be a check to power.” “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.” “Let women share the rights and she will emulate the virtues of men.” ANSWER “Power”—Montesquieu; each branch of government should limit power of other branches. “Man”—Rousseau; civilization corrupted the state of nature. “Let women”—Wollstonecraft; give women equal rights and they will display men’s goodness. continued... HOME Possible Responses:

12 Section The Enlightenment in Europe 2 2 Assessment ANSWER Hobbes—humans are naturally selfish and wicked; governments keep order. Locke—humans are naturally able to govern themselves; favored self-government. Rousseau—people are naturally good; society corrupts them; power comes from the general will. Possible Responses: HOME End of Section 2 3. Compare the views of Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau on government. How do their differing ideas reflect their understanding of human behavior? THINK ABOUT how each philosopher viewed the “state of nature” what each considered the source of a government’s authority

13 Enlightenment ideas circulate in pamphlets and formal discussions. The new ideals of order and reason are reflected in the arts and music. European monarchs make limited reforms based on Enlightenment ideas. Overview Assessment Key Idea The Spread of Enlightenment Ideas 3 HOME GRAPH

14 Enlightenment ideas spread through the Western world and profoundly influenced the arts and government. An “enlightened” problem- solving approach to government and society prevails in modern civilization today. Overview Assessment salon baroque neoclassical enlightened despot Catherine the Great 3 MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME The Spread of Enlightenment Ideas GRAPH

15 3 1. Give examples for each of the following topics related to the spread of Enlightenment: (a) circulation of ideas; (b) art and literature; and (c) monarchy. Section 3 Assessment continued... HOME The Spread of Enlightenment Ideas Circulation of IdeasArt and Literature Monarchy Spread of Enlightenment Ideas Salons, Encyclopedia, books, letters, magazines, pamphlets Neoclassical art, classical music, novel Enlightened despots, Frederick the Great, Joseph II, Catherine the Great GRAPH

16 3 Section 3 Assessment ANSWER Salons were hosted by wealthy middle-class women, who had an interest in educating themselves; many great artists and thinkers gathered to share ideas; salons were held in private homes, so guests could speak freely without the threat of jail or exile. Possible Response: 2. What advantages do you think salons had over earlier forms of communication in spreading new ideas? THINK ABOUT who hosted the salons and where they were held who was invited to the salons church and state influence on publishing and education HOME The Spread of Enlightenment Ideas End of Section 3 GRAPH

17 Colonists resist the laws and taxes imposed by the British. Colonial leaders use Enlightenment ideas to justify independence from Britain, and, after winning the Revolution, create a federal government. Overview Assessment Key Idea American Revolution: The Birth of a Republic 4 HOME

18 Enlightenment ideas helped spur the American colonies to create a new nation. The revolution created a republic, the United States of America, that became a model for many nations of the world. Overview Assessment Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson checks and balances federal system Bill of Rights 4 MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME American Revolution: The Birth of a Republic

19 1. List problems faced by the Americans as colonists and in shaping their republic. Then, explain their actions and decisions to solve those problems. 4 continued... Section 4 Assessment HOME American Revolution: The Birth of a Republic ProblemSolution Navigation ActsSmuggling Stamp Act Import tax on tea Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Distrust of central government Boycott Boston Tea Party Constitutional Convention Federal system

20 2. How does the opening statement from the Declaration of Independence reflect enlightened thinking? Section 4 4 Assessment ANSWER It reflects the supremacy of reason, and shows a belief in human progress. It also includes the ideas that humans have natural rights, and that a government gets its power from the consent of the governed. Possible Response: HOME American Revolution: The Birth of a Republic End of Section 4


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