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Chapter 4 Landforms. Section 1-Landforms I. Forces below Earth’s Surface A. Geology-study of the Earth’s physical structures and the processes that have.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Landforms. Section 1-Landforms I. Forces below Earth’s Surface A. Geology-study of the Earth’s physical structures and the processes that have."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Landforms

2 Section 1-Landforms I. Forces below Earth’s Surface A. Geology-study of the Earth’s physical structures and the processes that have created them B. Earth’s 4 zones 1. Core-inner and outer-2,000 miles a. inner is solid b. outer is mostly dense liquid metal, mainly iron and nickel 2. Mantle-1800 miles-magma and rock 3. Crust-5-25 miles thick


4 C. Internal Forces 1. Planet Tectonics-explains how forces within the planet create landforms 2. Continental Drift-plates move along mantle at 1 inch per year 3. Volcanoes and Earthquakes are common along plate boundaries 4. Earthquakes stem from tectonic forces causing rocks within the crust to break 5. Pangaea Mid-Atlantic Ridge


6 D. Plate Movement 1. Plate move apart (spread), collide or move laterally past one another 2. Spreading takes place on ocean floor, magma works its way up, ocean ridges form 3. Spreading plate boundaries on continents are called rift valleys 4. Abyssal Plains-flat surface away from the ridges 5. Continental Shelf


8 E. Plates Colliding 1. Trenches form under water from one plate sliding underneath the other 2. Folds are places where rocks have been compressed into bends 3. Faults are places where rock masses have broken apart and moved away from each other. 4. Plate collisions create giant mountains



11 II. Forces on Earth’s Surface A. Weathering-breaking and decaying of rocks, caused by chemical processes and physical processes (heat, water and freezing) B. Sediment-small particles of gravel, sand and mud C. Erosion-movement of surface material from one location to another D. Water, Wind and Waves cause erosion


13 Section 2-The Hydrosphere I.Water on Earth A. 97% salty, 2% frozen fresh, 1% usable B. Desalination-process used to remove salt from fresh water C. Amount of water never changes D. Hydrologic Cycle-Water Cycle...Pg. 70 E. Headwaters-tributaries-watershed (drainage basin)

14 F. Estuaries-form when river meets an inlet, or small arm, of the sea… fresh and saltwater mix G.Wetlands-any landscape that is covered with water for at least part of the year. H.Many have been drained for farming and building (Everglades)


16 I.Groundwater a. Water found below ground b. Water table-area where ground underneath is completely saturated c. table fluctuates based on amount of rain or well usage d. Lowering of table could lead to settling, slumping or cracking

17 II.Floods- Too much water and no where for it to go Levees: man-made structures of dirt, rock and concrete Levees are designed to protect habitat Levees cause problems for civilians downstream

18 Section 3-Natural Resources I.Soil and Forests A. Resource-any physical material that makes up part of the Earth and that people need and value. B. Renewable/Nonrenewable

19 C. Soil Horizon

20 D.Leaching (caused by rainwater) is the downward movement of minerals and humus in soils

21 E. Sustaining Soil Resources 1. Contour Plowing-plowing land across field to reduce slope and thus erosion

22 2. Crop Rotation and fertilizer prevents soil exhaustion 3. Irrigation works but can lead to soil salinization…salt from the water built up over time

23 F.Forests 1. Reduce erosion, provided habitats and resources 2. Deforestation-destruction or loss of forests 3. Reforestation-replanting of trees

24 II.Air and Water A. What are major causes of air pollution? B. Chemicals in air mix with sunlight to create smog…Los Angeles and Mexico City C. Acid Rain - ruins lakes, trees and buildings D. Air pollution can hurt the ozone layer


26 E. Water 1. Controlled by dams, canals, reservoirs and aqueducts 2. Accessed by wells tapping into aquifers (layers of rock were water is plentiful) 3. Fossil water is desert water that is underground from thousands of years ago



29 IV.Mineral Resources A. Minerals are solid substances that come out of the ground B. Usage 1. Used to build, make metals, glass… 2. Mines 3. Ore is removed and substance is removed from rock at alternate location 4. Some minerals are plentiful…others are rare

30 V.Energy Resources A. Fossil fuels-nonrenewable-coal, natural gas, petroleum B. Created from remains of ancient plants and animals over millions of years C. Uranium-nuclear plants don’t pollute air but produce radioactive waste

31 D.Fossil Fuels 1. Coal is old but effective and plentiful 2. Coal pollutes 3. Petroleum (oil) is accessed by drilling 4. Oil is used to make gasoline, diesel and heating fuel, asphalt and other fuels 5. Natural gas is odorless but given artificial smell for detection

32 6. Other uses a. coal makes dyes b. oil makes petrochemicals which include raw materials for making explosives, food additives, medicines, pesticides and plastics

33 VI. Alternative Energy Resources A. Hydroelectric Power-electricity produced by moving water B. Dams hold water back, then allow it to run through small openings which generates power…10% of U.S. energy

34 C. Windmills…wind turbines D. Geothermal Energy-heat of the Earth’s interior, plants built in places near volcanoes and hot springs E. Solar Energy-energy of the sun

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