Presentation on theme: "Sea- Saltwater fishes Flat fish / Round fish Freshwater fishes Migratory fishes Source: On Cooking, Chapter 20, page 561 to 577."— Presentation transcript:
Sea- Saltwater fishes Flat fish / Round fish Freshwater fishes Migratory fishes Source: On Cooking, Chapter 20, page 561 to 577
Fish are aquatic animals with fins for swimming and gills for breathing. There are over 30’000 species of which most live in seas and oceans, while freshwater fish are far less numerous. All fish are highly perishable but with improved preservation and transportation techniques they are now readily available fresh or frozen almost anywhere. The general term fish includes both fresh and saltwater varieties. They have fins and an internal skeleton of bone and cartilage
Sea fish - Saltwater fish Round fish Flat fish Migratory fish Fish that migrate either fresh water to saltwater and back for spawning or vice versa or migrate between sea or freshwater without spawning Fresh water fish Round fish only Lake fish and river fish
Diminishing fish in the world seas has led to an increased establishment of aquafarming both for seawater and freshwater fish. Fresh water fish are farmed in ponds, for river fish varieties often with added flow of water to simulate the stream of water in a river. Aerating is necessary to ensure the natural amount of CO2 in the water. Saltwater fish is farmed off the coast in large netted enclosures. Artificial feeding is very important to the final product of the fish, as the fish can’t naturally “hunt” it’s prey.
Based on the shape and skeletal structure, fish are divided into two major categories Round Fish Swim in vertical position Eyes on both sides of the heads Shape might be round, oval or compressed Flat fish Swim in horizontal position Eyes on top of their head Bottom dwellers with dark skin on top and light skin underneath for camouflage Some change colors according to surroundings Small scales and dorsal and anal fins run the full length of the body
This is a difficult task due to the vast number of species and at times very similar appearance. Adding to the confusion is the fact that the same fish may have different names in different locations and some species are referred to by their foreign name even on menus of restaurants. The FDA has a list of approved market names for the US which helps but is not used in common jargon a good referral guide.
Bass Several fresh and seawater species which are spiny-finned. The freshwater varieties are members of the unrelated sunfish family. They’re meat is lean and delicate. Largemouth / smallmouth / redeye and black bass The saltwater varieties are very popular and commercially often used: Black sea bass / Striped bass
Black sea bass or rock sea bass Lean firm and flaky meat with mild flavor 700g – 1360g in weight Live in the Atlantic ocean from New York to North Carolina Good for almost all cooking methods, often served whole in Chinese kitchen and often used in Italian cuisine Striped bass An Anadromous fish, often referred to as rockfish (wrong description) Not available commercially due to overfishing and pollution Aquafarmed striped sea bass (hybrid) or white perch is sold under this name 500g – 2.2kg in weight Rich sweet flavor and firm texture, best suited for baking, broiling. Steaming or poaching
Cod The cod fish family includes the Pacific and Atlantic varieties as well as pollok, haddock, whiting and hake. Mild delicate flavor and lean, flaky meat Cod can be prepared by most cooking methods although grilling is not suitable as the flesh is too flaky Atlantic cod Up to 90kg in weight – market cod up to 4.4kg Available in pieces fresh or frozen or prepared breaded, stick or portions Smoked and dried salted cod (bacalao) are specialties Scrod is a marketing name for haddock or cod weighting less than 1.1kg weight or 50 cm in length
Haddock 900g – 2.3kg in weight Look like a thin, small Atlantic cod Strong flavor and very delicate texture Pacific cod Also known as gray cod and comes from northern Pacific Less abundant than the Atlantic cod They are often labeled “true cod” in order not to be mistaken with the unrelated species of rock or black cod Pollock Also known as Boston blue fish or blue cod Plentiful in the northern Pacific and Atlantic oceans Flesh is grey-pink raw, but turns white when cooked Available also salted or smoked
Eels Salt water & Fresh water varieties Long, snakelike freshwater fish with anal and dorsal fins running the length of the body. The conger eel is from a different family Eels have a high fat content Tough skin needs to be removed before or after cooking Smoked eel is available May be steamed, fried, baked or in stews Baby eels are a springtime delicacy mainly in Spain, fried on olive oil with garlic and chilies.
Grouper - Garoupa The grouper family of fishes counts almost 400 hundred species and is found worldwide in warm waters. Some species up to 270kg, commercial species 2.2–8.8kg in weight Lean white flesh with mild-sweet flavor Tough strong flavored skin is often removed ahead of cooking Best for baking, frying, grilling or deep-frying Most common varieties: Atlantic Ocean Yellow fin / black / red and gag Pacific Ocean Sea bass (jewfish, different from black sea bass)/ spotted cabrilla Other varieties Red spotted grouper – Lapu Lapu
Herring Long silver-blue fish from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Herring are strong flavored with moderated to high fat content. Up to 225g in weight Fresh sardines, butterflied or filleted can be grilled, broiled or roasted. Smoked they are called Kippers Cured and brined they are a specialty in Northern Europe Matjes, Rollmops Young small herring are called Sardines Sold canned whole or skinned, boned fillets Sold also in oil or sauce, smoked or fried Used mostly for salads, tapas (appetizers) and sandwiches
John Dory or St. Peter’s fish Silver skinned with a distinctive black spot and a yellow halo on each side of the body. White firm, finely flaked flesh Classic ingredients for bouillabaisse Can be pan-fried, roasted or baked Other varieties of the dory family include Silver / mirror / oreo Monkfish – A.K.A angler fish, goosefish, rape or lotte Usually sold head off as the head is very large and inedible Scale-less skin must be removed Flesh is lean pearly white and very firm Best for baking, grilling, frying, steaming or broiling
Mackerel This family includes the King and Spanish mackerel as well as the tuna and the wahoo. Species known as Atlantic or Pacific mackerel are not generally used for food Flesh is grey to pink and turns off-white when cooked with mild flavor and flaky texture Best for broiling, baking and grilling Available smoked Wahoo Also known as ono and found throughout tropical and subtropical waters but especially Hawaii. Cooked like the mackerel
Tuna Varieties include” Bluefin, yellowfin, bigeye, bonito and blackfin, skipjack, longfin or albacore Can weigh up to 200kg Ahi is a marketing name for yellowfin or bigeye tuna Generally cut into 4 loins Fresh tuna flesh is deep red in color, generally lean with the exception of the belly Cooked medium or rare (well done –dry) and best for gilling or broiling Can be smoked or marinated (cured) or canned (cooked) Tuna belly “toro” and loin “maguro” are popular Japanese Sashimi
Mahi-mahi Common used name for dolphin or dolphinfish and not to be confused with the mammals of the same name. Also known as Dorado Found in tropical seas Up to 6.6kg in weight Flesh is off-white to pink, firm texture with sweet flavor Best for broiling, grilling or baking Meat can become dry and marinades or sauces are recommended
Orange roughy Found in the pacific off the coast of Australia & New Zealand Bright orange skin and firm pearly white, low fat content flesh with bland flavor and firm texture Mostly sold filleted, boneless frozen up to 225g per fillet Best for grilling, broiling and steaming
Red snapper The red snapper belongs to the snapper family found in tropical and subtropical waters with many different genus's and species which include: Ruby, mangrove, jobfish, yellowtail, African red, black, green and many more Lean, pink, flaky, sweet flavored flesh turns white when cooked Available small 450g – 1.3kg and large 1.8kg – 2.7kg in weight Often available filleted with some skin remaining for identification Can be prepared for almost any cooking method, head and bones are excellent for stocks. Swordfish Can reach up to 110kg in weight Flesh is lean, sweet and very firm, pink to gray and off white when raw turning white when cooked. Due to the size mostly available in wheels Excellent for broiling and grilling often served medium due to dryness when cooked well
Sea bream Large family of fish found in the Mediterranean (gilt-head), the Caribbean (Porgy), the Atlantic (black sea) and the Indo-Pacific (emporer & snapper) oceans. Many fish are called bream and therefore it is difficult to make a single statement about cooking methods and flesh composure. Shark Despite their reputation they make delicious eating. Mako (often sold as swordfish) & blue shark most common Sand, sharp-nose, blacktip, angel & tresher commercially available Can reach up to 100kg in weight and sold in wheels Good for broiling, grilling, baking or frying
Flat fish Swim in horizontal position Eyes on top of their head Bottom dwellers with dark skin on top and light skin underneath for camouflage Some change colors according to surroundings Small scales and dorsal and anal fins run the full length of the body All flatfish have four fillets, 2 on each side.
Flounder Lean white to pinkish-white firm flesh with mild sweet flavor Available fresh or frozen, filleted or whole, deheaded and gutted Whole fish can be baked or grilled and broiled while the thin fillets are best for poaching, steaming and frying. Many flounder varieties are sold as sole in an attempt to cash in at the higher prize of “true” sole English sole Petrale sole Domestic Dover sole Lemon sole
English sole From the west cost of the US Often marketed as “sole fillets” Petrale sole From the west cost of the US Fillets are thicker and firmer compared to other “sole/flounder” species Domestic Dover sole Also called Pacific sole Often afflicted with parasites -slimy and gelatinous flesh Lemon sole Most abundant East cost flounder Also known as blackback or winter flounder Average 900g in weight
Halibut Among the largest flat fish Up to 135kg in weight Mainly two species – Atlantic (eastern)and Pacific (Alaskan, northern, western) halibut Lean, firm, snow-white flesh with a sweet, mild flavor California halibut are actually a flounder variety and smaller – up to 5.4kg The fillet is large enough to be cut into steaks or cubes Best for grilling, baking, poaching or broiling
Sole Perhaps the most flavorful and fine textured flat fish. Not available in US waters and therefore all “sole” fish marketed and caught in the US are actually flounders. Dover sole A classic of European (French) cuisine Pearly-white flesh with delicate flavor Native to the English channel but can be found off the coast of England, Africa and Europe. In Europe only the common sole and the dover sole are sold as sole.
Turbot They are large, diamond shaped fish The Pacific variety is of no great importance to the cuisines The are also marketed as Brill The European variety is highly prized and valued for their delicate flavor and firm white flesh
Diadromous fishes travel between salt and fresh water. There are three types of diadromous fish: anadromous live in the sea mostly, breed in fresh water catadromous live in fresh water, breed in the sea amphidromous fishes move between fresh and salt water during some part of life cycle, but not for breeding potamodromous fishes migrate within fresh water only oceanodromous fishes migrate within salt water only
Salmon Found in both the northern Atlantic and Pacific oceans. They return back to freshwaters rivers and streams of their birth to spawn They get their reddish-pink color from fat-soluble carotenoids found in crustaceans they feed on. Salmon is available hot or cold smoked or cured (Gravlax /Lox) or canned. Excellent for grilling, broiling, baking, poaching or steaming
Atlantic salmon Most important species commercially Extensively farmed (Norway, Canada, Scotland) Rich pink color and moist flesh Wild Atlantic salmon is very rare and seldom available Up to 5 kg in weight Other Salmon varieties Chum, sockeye, red, blueback and pink
Chinook or King salmon From the pacific ocean Up to 13kg in weight Red-orange flesh with high fat content and rich flavor Often marketed by the name of the river they come from – Yukon chinook Coho or Silver salmon Available wild of aquafarmed Up to 5.5 kg in weight farmed, wild only up to 450g
Strugeon Numerous species Caviar producing species – Beluga, Sevruga, Oscietra Shad North American fish
Fishes whish travel between sea and freshwater Barramundi Northern Australia Milk fish – Bangus Found in coastal regions and around islands reef Live in the sea but travel into mangroves (brackish water) and streams or lakes to mature Raised in fresh water tanks for aquafarming
Trout The trout is a member of the salmon family mainly living in rivers and streams. Aquafarmed varieties include Rainbow (most popular), brown and brook trout Some trout's are anadromous like the salmon trout (also called steelhead) Lake trout's are also called char Flesh is delicate and lightly pink to gray-white except for the salmon trout which is orange to red in color Trout is best for baking, pan-frying or steaming Also available smoked
Sturgeon Fresh water varieties only Pike Whitefish Very popular in European lake Carp Various varieties mainly lake fishes Often used in Chinese kitchen for steaming Barbel / Bream carp / Chub sucker / Leather / Mirror and wild carp
Char Arctic / Brook / Lake char Burbot Only fresh water member of the cod family Eels Fresh water eels – European & American river eel Catfish Sheatfish
Whiting Freshwater fish related to salmon Up to 3.2kg in weight Available whole or filleted Firm, white flesh with moderate amount of fat and sweet flavor Often used in processed products Good for broiling, baking and grilling Also available smoked
Perch Pike perch Tilapia a.k.a cherry or sunshine snapper (unrelated to snapper) Name given to several species of aqua farmed freshwater fishes worldwide. Quick growing reaching 1.3kg in weight with white, sweet meat with firm texture Available whole or filleted, fresh or frozen Can be cooked used for almost any cooking method Yellow perch
Catfish These are scaleless freshwater fishes living in rivers and lakes. Extensive aquafarming eliminates the “muddy” flavor of the wild fish and ensures year-round supply. Small fishes are known as fiddlers Pure, white meat with moderated fat content 700 g – 2.2kg in weight May be prepared by almost any cooking method but especially suited fro frying Other species are often imported and sold and marketed as catfish
Preview The next unit / lesson Shell fish Sea shell fish / Freshwater Mollusks / Crustaceans / Echinoderms Source: On Cooking, Chapter 20, page 570 to 573
Crustaceans can be found both in fresh and in salt water. They have hard outer shells, jointed appendages and breath through gills. Crayfish Prawn Crabs Lobster Shrimp
Crabs Crabs are found throughout the world and the meat texture and flavor in general depends on the variety and origin of the crab. Crabs are purchased alive or frozen cooked or as crabmeat only Dead crabs must be discarded Crabs can be boiled or baked and used is soups, stews and stir-fried dishes
King crabs Very large crabs up to 4.4 kg Caught in very cold waters - northern pacific and Bering sea Sold cooked frozen as clusters of legs, legs & claws split legs. Very white, flaky sweet meat Meat whole leg or body meat, shredded or minced is also available Dungeness crab They are found on the west cost of the US Up to 1.8 kg in weight Delicate sweet meat Sold, live, precooked or frozen or canned or frozen as picked meat.
Blue crabs Most abundantly found on the east cost of the US. Meat is rich and sweet. They are available as hard or soft shell Hard-shell crabs are sold live, precooked and frozen or picked meat. Hard-shell crabs are mostly steamed and served whole Soft shell crabs are harvested within 6 hours after molting and are available live from May 15 to September 15 or frozen. Soft-shell crabs can be fried, sautéed, broiled or added to soups and stews.
Snow or Spider crabs They are found in abundance on the Alaskan waters and along the eastern coast of Canada Often used to replace the scarcer supply of King crabs They are sold precooked, usually frozen The meat can be used in soups, salads, omelets or other prepared dishes Legs can be served as appetizers
Stone crab Generally only available as cooked claws, fresh or frozen (raw, the meat is sticking to the shell) The claw is harvested and the body returned to the seas, where in about 18 months the claw will regenerate onto the body. The meat is firm and sweet, similar to lobster Cracked claws are served hot or cold
Lobster Lobsters have brown to blue-black shells with firm white meat and sweet flavor. Lobster shells turn red when cooked They are usually steamed, poached, simmered, baked or grilled and can be served hot or cold Lobster must be kept alive until being cooked, although frozen precook lobster is available Dead lobster need to be discarded Lobster meat or whole tail is also available Maine, Boston, American or clawed lobster Spiny lobster Slipper or squat lobster, lobsterette
Maine lobster Edible mate in both claws and the tail Considered the best tasting lobsters From the cold waters off the northern US east cost Mostly sold live but available frozen or as cooked picked meat The coral and tomalley (inside the lobster head) are very flavorful and often used for sauces Spiny Lobster Harvested all over the world Very small claws and only tail meat is used Some times indentified as rock lobsters Warm-water species from Caribbean and Brazil / cold-water species from Australia, NZ and South Africa Cold-water species are considered superior to warm water species
Slipper lobster, lobsterette and squat lobster All clawless lobster species Found in tropical and subtropical waters Flavor is considered inferior to spiny and Maine lobsters Langoustines – small Atlantic lobsters
Shrimps Can be found in any waters of the world Dozen of species and varieties including: Tiger, white, pink and brown shrimps Available fresh, raw head on, cooked and frozen head on or off and frozen tail meat shell on or off. Breaded, battered and other processed shrimps are also available Shrimp are graded by size in count per kg. e.g 24-26 means there are 24 to 26 pieces per kg.
Mollusks are mainly sea creatures although there are some found in fresh water and some on land (land snail) There are generally three categories of mollusks: Univalves Single shell with soft bodies. Mainly marine snails with one foot used to attach them selves to a fix object (eg rocks) Bivalves Mollusks with two shells that are attached to each other by a “hinge” Cephalopods Marine mollusks with distinct heads and developed eyes and several arms attached to the head near the mouth No outer shell but a small inner shell called pen or cuttlebone
Univalves Abalone Small grating-brown shell Although they can be eaten raw or cured (ceviche) they are mosyly used stir-fried or steamed/braised in Chinese kitchens Conch Found in tropical waters The lean, smooth very firm meat can be cured (ceviche) or slow-cooked Sea snails Mostly pan-fried, stir-fried or eaten raw
Bivalves – Clams In general two varieties, the Atlantic & the Pacific clams Atlantic clams - Atlantic hard shell or Quahogs which have different names according to size Little necks - below 5 cm across the shell - steamed on the half shell Cherrystones - below 7.5 cm across the shell can be eaten raw but mostly cooked (steamed) Chowders – the largest quahogs, always cooked - minced for chowders and soups Topnecks – often served stuffed Soft-shell clams – also Ipswich, steamer or longneck clams. Brittle shells with black tipped valve, mostly steamed or stir-fried. Surf clams – deep-water clams up to 20 cm across the shell. Cut into strips for frying or minced/chopped and canned
Pacific clams are generally too tough for eating raw and must be cooked Manila clam – found along the Pacific costs can be served steamed or half shell Geoduck – the largest Pacific clam, can weight up to 4.5 kg. Has a large protruding siphon, but tender rich bodies. Used in Asian kitchen as well as for sushi Bamboo clams Long tube shelled clams with brittle shell Cockles Small bivalves in general more popular in Europe and used in dishes like paella and fish soups and stews.
CW: Little neck, Cherrystone, Cockle, Manila, Bamboo, Geoduck
Mussels Mussels are found worldwide and are excellent steamed in wine, in pasta or soups but can also be fried and baked (Half shell) Blue Mussel Found wild on the Atlantic coast but are also aqua farmed Plump, sweet, pinking to orange meat. Sold live or cooked (frozen) in vacum Available all year but best season is during winter months Green shell mussel (also green lip or New Zealand mussel) Larger than the blue mussel with distinct green edge Found mainly in Asian and South Pacific waters (New Zealand, Thailand, Philippines)
Oysters Oysters have a gray shell with a soft, gray, briny flesh that can be eaten raw from the shell or steamed and baked in the shell. Shucked meat can be sautéed or poached and used in chowders, soups, stews and sauces. There are 3 main varieties of oysters Ostrea Edulis, Crassostrea and Pinctada. Ostrea Edulis Flat oysters with a distinct pear shaped shell and brittle appearance. often also called European flat oysters. Main varieties include Colchester (UK), Belon (France) and Bluff (New Zealand) Crassostrea Cupped oysters found all over the world in many sub varieties include C. Gigas (creuse oysetrs in France) and C. angulata (Portuguese oysters) Pinctada are mostly prized for their pearl producing qualities, not for culinary use.
Belon Grown in the Bretagne (Brittany) region of France. Slow growing flat oyster Creuses French description for cupped oysters (C. Gigas) Fine de claire Oysters are “refined” for one month in “claires” (flooded salt water beds) in the Marennes-Oleron region Marennes Grown on the Atlantic coast of France in the Marennes- Oleron region. Oysters are greenish colored due to the abundance of nutritious algae in the oyster farming fields
Zeeland Not a specific oyster but rather oysters farmed in the south-west of the Netherlands by the Ostschelde river. Oysters include Gigas (Fine de claire and pacific) as well as Edulis (flat) type. Colchester Also called Colchester native oyster (Edulis type) Throughout Europe's west coasts and islands (UK & Ireland) flat (Edulis) type oysters are often called native oysters and Crassostrea type oysters are referred to as “rock” oysters
US Often called after their origin or farming region. Atlantic oysters Bluepoint, Chesapeake bay, Long Island. Malpecque European flat oysters Often a misleadingly described as a Belon, but flat oyster from US – Samish Bay, Wescot bay Pacific oysters Penn cove, Wescott bay, Hamma-Hamma, Kumamoto, Olympia (only native US pacific oyster) Australia & New Zealand Sydney rock, Tasmania Bluff – New Zealand edulis type oyster
Oysters are graded according to size, although not all countries use the same system. Mainly the cup depth and the shape is looked at and important for the various grades. Belon 0 – 0000 European oysters in general small, medium, large, XL By numbers per kg e.g. 8-10 /12-14
Half shell frozen oysters Mostly frozen with natural seawater Whole shucked oysters Meat only in brine Processed oysters Canned Smoked Frozen meat only
Scallops Scallops contain an edible white adductor mussel that holds together the two fan-shaped shells. Three main varieties Sea scallops – cold water, up to 65 pc per kg Bay scallops – cold water, up to 200 pc per kg Calico scallops – warm water up to 250 pc per kg Available live in the shell with roe or shucked, frozen and cleaned. Sweet meat with tender texture good for broiling, grilling frying, sautéing, and baking. Over cooked scallops quickly become chewy and dry
Cephalopods Sea animals that do not tolerate fresh water at all. They all have a distinct head with tentacles and no inner bone. Octopus Gray color when raw which turns purple when cooked. Needs to be cooked soft before eating. Used for salads, stews, soups, and sushi
Cuttlefish Squid Also known as calamari (Italian) Available fresh or frozen in packs in various sizes Needs to be cooked to be palatable but overcooking makes meat chewy and hard Best for sautéing and frying
Freshwater mussels & clams Many different varieties but commercially less successful than seawater varieties Freshwater crabs Varieties include the coconut crab, spinner crabs and mangrove crabs. Some even live on land and migrate between fresh, salt and brackish water
Crayfish In the southern US crayfish are called crawfish or crawdad and are freshwater creatures looking like miniature lobsters Yabbies - Australian variety with thin grayish shell Aquafarmed to ensure demand is met Usually purchased live or precooked and reach about 17cm in length Generally only the lean tail meat is eaten They become very red when cooked Crayfish are a staple of Cajun cuisine – Gumbo, Jambalaya
Prawn Often interchanged with shrimps in the English language It would be more accurate to call the freshwater species as prawns and the saltwater as shrimps General practice however is that larger shrimps are called prawns Scampi is the Italian for Dublin bay prawn (which is actually a miniature lobster) In the US, scampi are shrimps sautéed in butter and garlic.
Univalve land animals belong to the family of mollusks Need to be boiled before usage Over cooking make the meat tough and rubbery Often baked or sautéed and served in or out of their shell Most popular are the Burgundy snails (large) or the smaller garden variety (Petit gris)
Salted fish Cod – Bacalao, salted fish for Asian cuisines – stocks, flavorings and sauces Dried fish Dried fish meat must be reconstituted in water or stock before usage – often used in Asian cuisines Marinated & pickled fish Matjes herring and other products “cooked” in pickling liquid Crab sticks – Surimi Japanese production of imitation crab meat made from a fish paste Frozen Fish & Seafood IQF frozen whole or fillets Ready to bake products – breaded, crusted or seasoned
Cured fish “cooked” by salt & sugar” mixture Graved lax Smoked fish and seafood Cold or hot smoked Cold smoked fish must be cured ahead of smoking Terrines, Pates and Parfaits Produced by Gardemanger section mostly include production of farce and must be cooked Can include smoked or salted products in addition to the farce meat
Canned products In oil, brine or in prepared sauces Sardines Anchovies Tuna Salmon