Presentation on theme: "South Africa. The purpose of the agreement was to more evenly distribute land between the majority and the minority of the population. The majority."— Presentation transcript:
The purpose of the agreement was to more evenly distribute land between the majority and the minority of the population. The majority of the population consisted of blacks, while the minority and ruling minority was white. Inevitably and unfortunately, corruption resulted in a large number of land being given to government officials and whites while black Zimbabwean families waited to be resettled. Instability in Zimbabwe stirs up as the Lancaster House Agreement is signed in 1979
Agrarian Reform Results In early 1980's the white majority farmers still owned about 70% of the most arable land. The majority of the land left for the rest of the population was inadequate for farming.
Zimbabweans were dislocated and many left without land. The lack of arable land available for the majority of the population has led starvation and malnutrition for a significant percentage of Zimbabweans.
Linkages Between Countries Colonial history in Zimbabwe from Britain and South Africa. Both British and South African whites farmed the Zimbabwean lands Zimbabwean blacks were used as labor for their farming activities
Immigrants in South Africa Top 3 immigrant sending countries in South Africa: 1.Zimbabwe 2.The Democratic Republic of Congo 3.Somalia
Zimbabweans in South Africa Over 3 million Zimbabweans refugees and immigrants. The estimated rate of legal immigration by Zimbabweans in South Africa is more than half
The Zimbabwean unemployment rate is at over 90% Zimbabwean immigrants tend to work in agricultural and domestic labor once in South Africa
Risks entailed for Immigrants Crossing the Border South African military was placed along border to deter migration in 2007, it was later removed in 2009. Human trafficking and sexual exploitation are some of the risk for immigrant in South Africa Police authorities police border areas to prevent Zimbabweans with out documents from being driven further into the country by unemployed South Africans Most Zimbabweans arrive by crossing underneath barbwire fences and the Limpopo River and then making their way into the South African providence of Limpopo
Approximately 80% of all Zimbabwe immigrants leave for the reason of getting away from Murambatsvina Example of why people are leaving: 2005 Operation Murambatsvina left approx. 500,000 people homeless Political
Avg. income per capita (yearly) in 2003 Zimbabwe- 2,180 South Africa- 10,270 Unemployment rates going into 2011 Zimbabwe- 95% South Africa- 24% Economical
Outlook on Immigrants from Governments & Citizens
Most Immigrants from Zimbabwe are laborers thus, unwanted by South Africa South African Governments want immigrants who are highly skilled in areas such as: Financial services Engineering Science Education & electro technology Government
South African Blacks see themselves as being better then blacks from anywhere in Africa In Zimbabwe migration is the only choice since there is no work available in their motherland, thus it is not looked down upon by other Zimbabweans Citizens
On April 3 rd 2009, the Department of Home Affairs announced its intention to grant Zimbabweans in South Africa a twelve-month ‘special dispensation permit’ on the basis of the 2002 Immigration Act, section 31 (2)(b). This permit grants the right to legally live and work in the country. As complementary measures, a moratorium on deportations and a 90-day free visa for Zimbabweans entering South Africa have been implemented from May 2009. Regularizing Zimbabwean Migration to South Africa
its development goals by facilitating efforts to combat corruption, protect labour standards, up-skill the economy and fight crime. While the free visa and special dispensation permit are clearly insufficient to achieve these broader policy aims on its own, these challenges will be much more difficult to tackle without the effective implementation of the permit. The new policies are unlikely to increase overall volumes of migration from Zimbabwe to South Africa. In fact, they are likely to enable Zimbabweans in South Africa to return more rapidly. Regularizing movement between South Africa and Zimbabwe will help the new government achieve…
Although exact figures are not available, a range of statistical sources suggest that there is a maximum of 1.5 million Zimbabweans in South Africa. It is unknown how many of these are undocumented. Even in the best-case scenario for Zimbabwe’s stabilization and reconstruction, movement between the two countries will continue in the foreseeable future. There is no way to stop or curtail this movement without very high costs in terms of finance and rights abuses. South Africa and SADC have committed to a ongoing process of greater regional integration. Although the regularization of movement between South Africa and Zimbabwe is partly a response to a current socio-economic crisis, it is also an opportunity to forge longer-term relations between the countries towards regional integration. Context Factors
Policy Impacts To manage migration flows and gradually reduce migration volumes. It is unlikely that legalizing migration options will lead to a large increase in Zimbabweans coming to South Africa. Border crossing statistics may rise, but this is an intended consequence of legalized movement, since previously invisible border-jumpers will become documented by the state. Many Zimbabweans move frequently between the two countries, often in order to take food and goods to support families remaining in Zimbabwe. Large segments of the Zimbabwean population and economy have been supported for several years through remittances from South Africa. Without such transfers there would be even more migration to South Africa - particularly of the most vulnerable women, children and elderly - since there would be less basis for survival within Zimbabwe.
The lack of adequate options for legal entry and residence for Zimbabweans has led to costly and largely ineffective border control and policing efforts to enforce immigration law.
Regularizing Zimbabweans, as the largest group of undocumented migrants in the country, will therefore have the following security and law enforcement effects: Reduce the physical danger of irregular border crossing – including assault, rape and extortion by smugglers and gangs, and natural hazards. Reduce expenditure on a largely ineffective deportation system. Reduce cross-border smuggling and the corruption of border officials and border police which goes with it. Enable police services to focus on crime fighting by reducing time and resources spent on immigration policing which does not impact on crime levels. Enable Zimbabwean victims of crime to report cases to the police without fear of being arrested themselves.