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The 6 Mark Question Technique Question Underline the command word and give its definition Rewrite the question to show you understand what it is asking.

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Presentation on theme: "The 6 Mark Question Technique Question Underline the command word and give its definition Rewrite the question to show you understand what it is asking."— Presentation transcript:

1 The 6 Mark Question Technique Question Underline the command word and give its definition Rewrite the question to show you understand what it is asking you to do. Write the key scientific points you should include in your answer, in bullet point form. Remember you do not need to use all of these points but you should always use more than one. P = Point Each paragraph should begin with a clear topic sentence stating the point that paragraph seeks to make. Your point should be a claim, something that needs to be supported or illustrated with evidence. The point should be *your* idea, not an idea from another source. E = Evidence Once you state the point the paragraph intends to make, provide evidence to support that point. That evidence can take a variety of forms: examples, descriptions, quotations, paraphrases, statistics, anecdotes, etc. The amount of evidence you include will depend upon the point you make. A = Analysis For each piece of evidence you need to explicitly explain what you want your audience to notice about it. Help them see what you see. Fully explain a couple pieces of evidence rather than list many pieces of evidence. Level 1: Basic 1-2 Marks Level 2: Clear 3-4 Marks Level 3: Detailed 5-6 Marks Knowledge  Knowledge of basic information  Knowledge of accurate information  Knowledge of accurate information appropriately contextualised Understanding  Simple understanding  Clear understanding  Detailed understanding, supported by relevant evidence and examples Organisation  The answer is poorly organised, with almost no specialist terms and their use demonstrating a general lack of understanding of their meaning, little or no detail  The answer has some structure and organisation, use of specialist terms has been attempted but not always accurately, some detail is given  Answer is coherent and in an organised, logical sequence, containing a wide range of appropriate or relevant specialist terms used accurately Spelling, punctuation & grammar  The spelling, punctuation and grammar are very weak.  There is reasonable accuracy in spelling, punctuation and grammar, although there may still be some errors.  The answer shows almost faultless spelling, punctuation and grammar. Step 1 - Read the question Step 4 - Bullet point the key information Step 2 - Identify the command word Step 3 - Reword the question (you can skip this step) Step 5 - Write your answer using PEA paragraphs Step 6 - Double check your answer

2 How To Guide The 6 Mark Question Each year in the UK, billions of plastic bags are given free to shoppers. These bags are made from poly(ethene) and are often used only once. After being used many of these plastic bags are either thrown away as litter or buried in landfill sites. In 2006 over 10 billion of these plastic bags were given free to shoppers. In 2009 the number of plastic bags given to shoppers had decreased to 6.1 billion. One reason for the decrease was because some supermarkets made people pay for their plastic bags. From 2011 a new type of plastic shopping bag made mainly from poly(ethene) had a use-by date of only one year printed on the bag. Use the information above and your knowledge and understanding to describe advantages and disadvantages of using plastic shopping bags made from poly(ethene). Question Level 1: Basic 1-2 Marks Level 2: Clear 3-4 Marks Level 3: Detailed 5-6 Marks Knowledge  Knowledge of basic information  Knowledge of accurate information  Knowledge of accurate information appropriately contextualised Understanding  Simple understanding  Clear understanding  Detailed understanding, supported by relevant evidence and examples Organisation  The answer is poorly organised, with almost no specialist terms and their use demonstrating a general lack of understanding of their meaning, little or no detail  The answer has some structure and organisation, use of specialist terms has been attempted but not always accurately, some detail is given  Answer is coherent and in an organised, logical sequence, containing a wide range of appropriate or relevant specialist terms used accurately Spelling, punctuation & grammar  The spelling, punctuation and grammar are very weak.  There is reasonable accuracy in spelling, punctuation and grammar, although there may still be some errors.  The answer shows almost faultless spelling, punctuation and grammar. Use the information - The answer must be based on the information given in the question. Describe - You need to recall facts in an accurate way Part 1 Describe in detail one than one advantage of using poly(ethene) to make plastic shopping bags Part 2 Describe in detail more than one disadvantage of using poly(ethene) to make plastic shopping bags Advantages: Simple properties e.g. strong / low density / water resistant Poly(ethene) bags can be recycled e.g. made into milk bottle crates Poly(ethene) bags can be burned to provide heat for buildings/generation of electricity New bags are now made that can biodegrade Disadvantages: (Older) bags can take many years to biodegrade There is a shortage of landfill space Bags are made from (crude) oil which is a non-renewable resource/running out Large amounts of energy/fuel are used for the production of poly(ethene) Scientific Knowledge & Understanding Decoded Question Command words Point There are many advantages and disadvantages to using poly(ethene) to make plastic shopping bags. Some of the advantages include… Evidence and Analysis... poly(ethene) is strong, low density and water resistant. These properties make poly(ethene) a good material to use because the bags will not break under the strain of heavy shopping, the bags are light so will save fuel when they are transported to the shops and they will prevent the shopping from getting wet in the rain. Secondly the bags can be recycled in to milk bottle crates, and also many are reused by the consumer to carry their shopping during other shopping trips. This means that they will not be going to landfill, of which there is a shortage. Point However there are still many disadvantages to using poly(ethene) to make plastic shopping bags including… Evidence and Analysis... the fact that poly(ethene) is made from crude oil. Crude oil is a non-renewable resource, which is running out, so poly(ethene) will eventually no longer be a viable material for making shopping bags. Secondly whilst some people will recycle and reuse their shopping bags other will just throw them away. This is an issue because we are running out of landfill space so to overcome this is lack of space rubbish being dumped at sea where the bags get eaten by sea turtles as they look like jellyfish. This has led to the death of many sea turtles and they are an endangered species. Remember there are many other examples that you could give when answering this question. Model Answer Using PEA Generic mark scheme

3 The 6 Mark Question C1.1 Fundamental ideas in Chemistry The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements. Although precursors exist, Dmitri Mendeleev is generally credited with the publication, in 1869, of the first widely recognized periodic table. Mendeleev's periodic table has since been expanded and refined with the discovery or synthesis of further new elements. Explain how the periodic table can be used to describe atomic structure and inform you about the properties of an element Question Explain - You should make something clear, or state the reasons for something happening. The points in the answer must be linked coherently and logically. The answer should not be a simple list of reasons. Command word Here you need to write the key scientific points you should include in your answer. Remember you do not need to use all of these points but you should always use more than one. Scientific Knowledge & Understanding P = Point Each paragraph should begin with a clear topic sentence stating the point that paragraph seeks to make. Your point should be a claim, something that needs to be supported or illustrated with evidence. The point should be *your* idea, not an idea from another source. E = Evidence Once you state the point the paragraph intends to make, provide evidence to support that point. That evidence can take a variety of forms: examples, descriptions, quotations, paraphrases, statistics, anecdotes, etc. The amount of evidence you include will depend upon the point you make. A = Analysis For each piece of evidence you need to explicitly explain what you want your audience to notice about it. Help them see what you see. Fully explain a couple pieces of evidence rather than list many pieces of evidence. Your Answer Using PEA Level 1: Basic 1-2 Marks Level 2: Clear 3-4 Marks Level 3: Detailed 5-6 Marks Knowledge  Knowledge of basic information  Knowledge of accurate information  Knowledge of accurate information appropriately contextualised Understanding  Simple understanding  Clear understanding  Detailed understanding, supported by relevant evidence and examples Organisation  The answer is poorly organised, with almost no specialist terms and their use demonstrating a general lack of understanding of their meaning, little or no detail  The answer has some structure and organisation, use of specialist terms has been attempted but not always accurately, some detail is given  Answer is coherent and in an organised, logical sequence, containing a wide range of appropriate or relevant specialist terms used accurately Spelling, punctuation & grammar  The spelling, punctuation and grammar are very weak.  There is reasonable accuracy in spelling, punctuation and grammar, although there may still be some errors.  The answer shows almost faultless spelling, punctuation and grammar. Generic mark scheme

4 The 6 Mark Question C1.1 Fundamental ideas in Chemistry The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements. Although precursors exist, Dmitri Mendeleev is generally credited with the publication, in 1869, of the first widely recognized periodic table. Mendeleev's periodic table has since been expanded and refined with the discovery or synthesis of further new elements. Explain how the periodic table can be used to describe atomic structure and inform you about the properties of an element Question Level 1: Basic 1-2 Marks Level 2: Clear 3-4 Marks Level 3: Detailed 5-6 Marks Knowledge  Knowledge of basic information  Knowledge of accurate information  Knowledge of accurate information appropriately contextualised Understanding  Simple understanding  Clear understanding  Detailed understanding, supported by relevant evidence and examples Organisation  The answer is poorly organised, with almost no specialist terms and their use demonstrating a general lack of understanding of their meaning, little or no detail  The answer has some structure and organisation, use of specialist terms has been attempted but not always accurately, some detail is given  Answer is coherent and in an organised, logical sequence, containing a wide range of appropriate or relevant specialist terms used accurately Spelling, punctuation & grammar  The spelling, punctuation and grammar are very weak.  There is reasonable accuracy in spelling, punctuation and grammar, although there may still be some errors.  The answer shows almost faultless spelling, punctuation and grammar. Generic mark scheme Level 1 (1-2 marks) There is a brief attempt to explain the atomic structure or a brief attempt to explain how the periodic table informs you about the properties of an element Level 2 (3-4 marks) There is a detailed explanation of atomic structure or a detailed explanation of how the periodic table informs you about the properties of an element Level 3 (5-6 marks) There is a clear and detailed explanation of atomic structure and a detailed explanation of how the periodic table informs you about the properties of an element Atomic structure Mass number = protons + neutrons; Atomic number = protons; Neutrons = mass number – atomic number; Electrons = protons; Electrons fill from smallest shell first; 2 in first shell, 8 in 2 nd and 3 rd Group number = number of outer electrons Period number = number of shells (only for the first 20 elements) Information on properties Group 0 = full other shell so are unreactive and are called the Nobel gases; Elements on the left-hand side of the table are metals Elements on the right-hand side of the table are non-metals Elements in the middle block are transition metals Metals are more reactive as you go down the group; Non-metals are less reactive as you go down the group; Elements in same group have similar properties; Specific mark scheme Explain - You should make something clear, or state the reasons for something happening. The points in the answer must be linked coherently and logically. The answer should not be a simple list of reasons. Command word

5 The 6 Mark Question C1.2 Limestone and Building Materials Limestone contains calcium carbonate. There is a large deposit of limestone under an area of natural beauty. A company wants to quarry this limestone and build a kiln near to the quarry to make cement Quarrying limestone and making cement will have an impact on everything near the area. Describe the positive and the negative impacts of quarrying limestone and making cement. Question Describe - You should recall some facts, events or process in an accurate way - for example an experiment you have done. You may need to give an account of what something looked like, or what happened, eg a trend in some data. Command word Here you need to write the key scientific points you should include in your answer. Remember you do not need to use all of these points but you should always use more than one. Scientific Knowledge & Understanding P = Point Each paragraph should begin with a clear topic sentence stating the point that paragraph seeks to make. Your point should be a claim, something that needs to be supported or illustrated with evidence. The point should be *your* idea, not an idea from another source. E = Evidence Once you state the point the paragraph intends to make, provide evidence to support that point. That evidence can take a variety of forms: examples, descriptions, quotations, paraphrases, statistics, anecdotes, etc. The amount of evidence you include will depend upon the point you make. A = Analysis For each piece of evidence you need to explicitly explain what you want your audience to notice about it. Help them see what you see. Fully explain a couple pieces of evidence rather than list many pieces of evidence. Your Answer Using PEA Explosives will be used to extract the limestone out of the ground. Heavy machinery will be used to lift and crush the limestone. Lorries will be used to transport the limestone to the kiln to make cement. The lorries and the heavy machinery will use diesel fuel.

6 The 6 Mark Question C1.2 Limestone and Building Materials Limestone contains calcium carbonate. There is a large deposit of limestone under an area of natural beauty. A company wants to quarry this limestone and build a kiln near to the quarry to make cement Quarrying limestone and making cement will have an impact on everything near the area. Describe the positive and the negative impacts of quarrying limestone and making cement. Question Describe - You should recall some facts, events or process in an accurate way - for example an experiment you have done. You may need to give an account of what something looked like, or what happened, eg a trend in some data. Command word Explosives will be used to extract the limestone out of the ground. Heavy machinery will be used to lift and crush the limestone. Lorries will be used to transport the limestone to the kiln to make cement. The lorries and the heavy machinery will use diesel fuel. Level 1: Basic 1-2 Marks Level 2: Clear 3-4 Marks Level 3: Detailed 5-6 Marks Knowledge  Knowledge of basic information  Knowledge of accurate information  Knowledge of accurate information appropriately contextualised Understanding  Simple understanding  Clear understanding  Detailed understanding, supported by relevant evidence and examples Organisation  The answer is poorly organised, with almost no specialist terms and their use demonstrating a general lack of understanding of their meaning, little or no detail  The answer has some structure and organisation, use of specialist terms has been attempted but not always accurately, some detail is given  Answer is coherent and in an organised, logical sequence, containing a wide range of appropriate or relevant specialist terms used accurately Spelling, punctuation & grammar  The spelling, punctuation and grammar are very weak.  There is reasonable accuracy in spelling, punctuation and grammar, although there may still be some errors.  The answer shows almost faultless spelling, punctuation and grammar. Generic mark scheme Level 1 (1-2 marks) There is a simple description of a positive and / or a negative impact caused by the plan to quarry limestone and / or make cement. Level 2 (3-4 marks) There is a clear description of both a positive and a negative impact caused by the plan to quarry limestone and / or make cement. Level 3 (5-6 marks) There is a detailed description of both positive impacts and negative impacts caused by the plan to quarry limestone and / or make cement. examples of the chemistry points made in the response Positive impacts: Limestone / cement is used for building Limestone needed for industrial processes Company landscapes / provides recreation facilities in the quarry after use Provides employment Improves local economy Improved transport links Negative impacts: Destruction of habitats Fewer plants / trees to absorb carbon dioxide Example of visual pollution Example of noise pollution Example of atmospheric pollution More traffic Specific mark scheme

7 The 6 Mark Question C1.3 Metals Metals are very useful in our everyday lives. Most metals are actually found combined with other elements, as compounds in ores. These metals must be extracted from their ores before they can be made useful. Explain why different metals need to be extracted using different methods. Question Explain - You should make something clear, or state the reasons for something happening. The points in the answer must be linked coherently and logically. The answer should not be a simple list of reasons. Command word Here you need to write the key scientific points you should include in your answer. Remember you do not need to use all of these points but you should always use more than one. Scientific Knowledge & Understanding P = Point Each paragraph should begin with a clear topic sentence stating the point that paragraph seeks to make. Your point should be a claim, something that needs to be supported or illustrated with evidence. The point should be *your* idea, not an idea from another source. E = Evidence Once you state the point the paragraph intends to make, provide evidence to support that point. That evidence can take a variety of forms: examples, descriptions, quotations, paraphrases, statistics, anecdotes, etc. The amount of evidence you include will depend upon the point you make. A = Analysis For each piece of evidence you need to explicitly explain what you want your audience to notice about it. Help them see what you see. Fully explain a couple pieces of evidence rather than list many pieces of evidence. Your Answer Using PEA

8 The 6 Mark Question C1.3 Metals Metals are very useful in our everyday lives. Most metals are actually found combined with other elements, as compounds in ores. These metals must be extracted from their ores before they can be made useful. Explain why different metals need to be extracted using different methods. Question Explain - You should make something clear, or state the reasons for something happening. The points in the answer must be linked coherently and logically. The answer should not be a simple list of reasons. Command word Level 1: Basic 1-2 Marks Level 2: Clear 3-4 Marks Level 3: Detailed 5-6 Marks Knowledge  Knowledge of basic information  Knowledge of accurate information  Knowledge of accurate information appropriately contextualised Understanding  Simple understanding  Clear understanding  Detailed understanding, supported by relevant evidence and examples Organisation  The answer is poorly organised, with almost no specialist terms and their use demonstrating a general lack of understanding of their meaning, little or no detail  The answer has some structure and organisation, use of specialist terms has been attempted but not always accurately, some detail is given  Answer is coherent and in an organised, logical sequence, containing a wide range of appropriate or relevant specialist terms used accurately Spelling, punctuation & grammar  The spelling, punctuation and grammar are very weak.  There is reasonable accuracy in spelling, punctuation and grammar, although there may still be some errors.  The answer shows almost faultless spelling, punctuation and grammar. Generic mark scheme Level 1 (1-2 marks) There is a simple explanation of how the reactivity of a metal affects the method of extraction Level 2 (3-4 marks) There is a clear explanation of why the increased reactivity of a metal makes it more difficult to extract Level 3 (5-6 marks) There is a detailed explanation of why the increased reactivity of a metal makes it more difficult to extract and how you can use the reactivity series to determine the best method of extraction. examples of the chemistry points made in the response Metals that are less reactive than carbon can be extracted from their oxides by reduction with carbon, for example iron oxide is reduced in the blast furnace to make iron. Metals that are more reactive than carbon, such as aluminium, are extracted by electrolysis of molten compounds. The use of large amounts of energy in the extraction of these metals makes them expensive. Copper can be extracted from copper-rich ores by heating the ores in a furnace (smelting). The copper can be purified by electrolysis. The supply of copper-rich ores is limited. Copper can be obtained from solutions of copper salts by electrolysis or by displacement using scrap iron. Specific mark scheme

9 The 6 Mark Question C1.4 Crude oils and fuels Petroleum products, such as petrol, are produced from crude oil. The graph shows the possible future production of petroleum products from crude oil and the expected demand for petroleum products. Canada’s oil sands hold about 20% of the world’s known crude oil reserves. The oil sands contain between 10 to 15% of crude oil. This crude oil is mainly bitumen. In Canada the oil sands are found in the ground underneath a very large area of forest. The trees are removed. Then large diggers and trucks remove 30 metres depth of soil and rock to reach the oil sands. The oil sands are quarried. Boiling water is mixed with the quarried oil sands to separate the bitumen from the sand. Methane (natural gas) is burned to heat the water. The mixture can be separated because bitumen floats on water and the sand sinks to the bottom of the water. The bitumen is cracked and the products are separated by fractional distillation. Use the information given and your knowledge and understanding to suggest the advantages and disadvantages of extracting petroleum products from oil sands. Use the information given - The answer must be based on the information given in the question. Unless the information given in the question is used, no marks can be given. Suggest - This term is used in questions where you need to apply your knowledge and understanding to a new situation. Often there may be more than one correct answer as you are expected to base your answers on scientific knowledge and/or principles. Command word Here you need to write the key scientific points you should include in your answer. Remember you do not need to use all of these points but you should always use more than one. Scientific Knowledge & Understanding P = Point Each paragraph should begin with a clear topic sentence stating the point that paragraph seeks to make. Your point should be a claim, something that needs to be supported or illustrated with evidence. The point should be *your* idea, not an idea from another source. E = Evidence Once you state the point the paragraph intends to make, provide evidence to support that point. That evidence can take a variety of forms: examples, descriptions, quotations, paraphrases, statistics, anecdotes, etc. The amount of evidence you include will depend upon the point you make. A = Analysis For each piece of evidence you need to explicitly explain what you want your audience to notice about it. Help them see what you see. Fully explain a couple pieces of evidence rather than list many pieces of evidence. Your Answer Using PEA Question

10 The 6 Mark Question C1.4 Crude oils and fuels Petroleum products, such as petrol, are produced from crude oil. The graph shows the possible future production of petroleum products from crude oil and the expected demand for petroleum products. Canada’s oil sands hold about 20% of the world’s known crude oil reserves. The oil sands contain between 10 to 15% of crude oil. This crude oil is mainly bitumen. In Canada the oil sands are found in the ground underneath a very large area of forest. The trees are removed. Then large diggers and trucks remove 30 metres depth of soil and rock to reach the oil sands. The oil sands are quarried. Boiling water is mixed with the quarried oil sands to separate the bitumen from the sand. Methane (natural gas) is burned to heat the water. The mixture can be separated because bitumen floats on water and the sand sinks to the bottom of the water. The bitumen is cracked and the products are separated by fractional distillation. Use the information given and your knowledge and understanding to suggest the advantages and disadvantages of extracting petroleum products from oil sands. Use the information given - The answer must be based on the information given in the question. Unless the information given in the question is used, no marks can be given. Suggest - This term is used in questions where you need to apply your knowledge and understanding to a new situation. Often there may be more than one correct answer as you are expected to base your answers on scientific knowledge and/or principles. Command word Level 1: Basic 1-2 Marks Level 2: Clear 3-4 Marks Level 3: Detailed 5-6 Marks Knowledge  Knowledge of basic information  Knowledge of accurate information  Knowledge of accurate information appropriately contextualised Understanding  Simple understanding  Clear understanding  Detailed understanding, supported by relevant evidence and examples Organisation  The answer is poorly organised, with almost no specialist terms and their use demonstrating a general lack of understanding of their meaning, little or no detail  The answer has some structure and organisation, use of specialist terms has been attempted but not always accurately, some detail is given  Answer is coherent and in an organised, logical sequence, containing a wide range of appropriate or relevant specialist terms used accurately Spelling, punctuation & grammar  The spelling, punctuation and grammar are very weak.  There is reasonable accuracy in spelling, punctuation and grammar, although there may still be some errors.  The answer shows almost faultless spelling, punctuation and grammar. Level 1 (1-2 marks) There is a basic description of at least one advantage or one disadvantage of extracting petroleum products from oil sands. Level 2 (3-4 marks) There is a clear description of an advantage and a disadvantage of extracting petroleum products from oil sands. Level 3 (5-6 marks) There is a detailed description of both advantages and disadvantages of extracting petroleum products from oil sands. Examples of the chemistry/environmental/economic/social points made in the response Generic mark scheme Advantages: the oil sands are needed because crude oil is running out this crude oil is needed because demand is increasing the oil sands contain a large amount of crude oil the oil sands could improve Canada’s economy the oil sands provide employment for a lot of people the trees / forest are used for wood products / fuel Disadvantages: destruction of environment / habitats fewer trees / forests to absorb carbon dioxide specified pollution, for example, visual, noise, atmospheric (including dust), water (including river or drinking) with cause, e.g. gases / particulates from burning diesel large amounts of methane (natural gas) are used to provide energy energy / fuel needed for cracking and fractional distillation burning fuel releases carbon dioxide crude oil / natural gas contains locked up carbon crude oil is non-renewable Specific mark scheme Question


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