Presentation on theme: "GLADIATORS STUDY HELP Becca Postoll. History Rome was established April 21, 753 BC The first known gladiatorial combat took place at a funeral of."— Presentation transcript:
GLADIATORS STUDY HELP Becca Postoll
History Rome was established April 21, 753 BC The first known gladiatorial combat took place at a funeral of Junius Brutus Gladiatorial Combat was taken from the Etruscans At first these fights were a sacrifice for the great leader who had died These ceremonies got more and more extravagant
History Slave Fighters- Bustiarii- funeral men The fights grew from ceremonies to popularity boosters Gladiators- swordsmen They were powerful political enhancers Caesar made the Gladiatorial events even better than ever
Who were Gladiators? Mostly POW’s, criminals, or slaves POW’s were brought into Rome and sold into slavery, only the biggest and strongest were bought into a gladiator school Criminals convicted of murder, robbery, arson, or sacrilege were damnati ad gladium, or death by the sword, or even thrown to the beasts, damnati ad bestius.
Who were Gladiators? As the popularity grew more and more criminals were sentenced to train in gladiator schools, damnati in ludum. Slaves were another source of Gladiators owners could dispose of their slaves and send them off to gladiator school (especially if they tried to run away or if they stole something) They could either fight and maybe get the rudius or even a better life, or they could die.
The Gladiators Those gladiators who received the rudius could come back to the games any time they wanted, some emperors even added a prize for those who came back. Occasionally nobles stepped into the arena, but mainly the gladiators were made of plebeians and those on the other slide. Even EMPERORS were seen in the arena Women were also Gladiators but soon they were banned from the arena because men did not want women to do what men do as well.
The Schools There were many schools to train these men to become great gladiators. There were 4 large schools that were in close vicinity to the Coliseum The Great School- Ludus Magnus The Gallic School- Ludus Gallicus The Dacian School- Ludus Dacius The animal fighter School- Ludus Matutinus
The Schools They were both prison camps and training centers The Gladiators were brainwashed into thinking that they were apart of a special elite group Novices or trios began their training with straw men and wooden swords. Instructors were retired Gladiators Primus Palus- Gladiators with lots of combat experience
Animals in the Arena Venationes- animal shows Started as religious ceremonies The order of the ludi(games): Venationes in the morning, and munera (gladiator fights) in the afternoon All across the Roman Empire animals were captured to provide for the need of these hunts Bestiarii- animal fighters
Animals in the Arena Venabulum- single long-bladed spear Sagittarii- bow and arrows These fighters took pride in their scars First form of matadors, like the traditional bull fighting in Spain Androcles and the Lion
The Amphitheater First Gladiator events were fought in the Circus Maximus (the chariot racing arena) The Circus Maximus was oval in shape with a spina (spine or divider), so very few people got a good view of the fight Amphitheater- theater with seats on all sides Arena- sand The sand easily soaked up the blood spilt, allowing for easy clean up.
The Amphitheater Amphitheatrum Flavium- The Colosseum was the most magnificent amphitheater of all times Constructed in 74 AD by Vespasiamus aka Vespasian Once open 100 consecutive days of animal hunts and gladiator shows were conducted The first level sat the emperor, senators, priests and priestesses, foreign kings and ambassadors
The Amphitheater Podium- the patricians(noblemen) sat Above the patricians and the higher tiers were for the lower class of ordinary people and slaves Velarium- a vast canvas awning handled by sailors Underneath the arena were chambers and tunnels to add special effects Animals and props could be lifted and appear magically from underneath the arena
Sea Battles Naumachia- sea fight The first sea battle recorded was by Julius Ceasar Augustus also had a sea battle, but had to outdo Ceasar Biremes- galleys with two banks of oars Triremes- galleys with three banks of oars Sometimes the Colosseum was even flooded and there were sharks and dangerous fish waiting for them to fall in.
Gladiators in Society Lowest class in Roman society Only meant to provide entertainment Forbidden to be buried in Roman cemeteries Invisible until they did something spectacular A really popular gladiator was like a modern day rock star or sport heroes Gladiator were the everyday need of the Roman society and a vicious cycle ensued
A Day at the Games Merchants surrounded the Amphitheater and set up stalls Food and wine, programs and bets were also placed Began with Parades Fasces- axe with a bundle of rods The royal family would also enter through the tunnel through the private entrance from the emperor
A Day at the Games The first part of the day were animal fights At noon- “Half-time show” Prisoners, Christians, and others who were killed Preliminary bouts, mock fights with wooden swords, could also be whips and clubs 100 Gladiators, 50 Thracian, and 50 Hoplomachi Mitte- let him go Iugula- Kill him Pollice verso- thumbs up
THE MAIN EVENT Urbico vs. Rapido (Urbico won) Urbico- Secutor, 13 victories, 22 years old Rapido- Retarius, lightening fast reflexes Felix vs. Aptus (Aptus won) Aptus- nasty reputation, 37 vicotories, Thracian Felix- Mirimillo, 45 years old, veteran Generoso vs. Flamma (Generoso won and was offered the rudius) Flamma- 21 victories, rudius 4 times, secutor Generoso- Retarius, handsome, 27 victories