Avoid over fertilization and over watering Explain the problems occuring from ‚The Green Illusion‘ 1.Big influence of wrong grastypes like Poa Anua 2.Wet and soft rootzones lead to slow and uneven putting surfaces. 3.Problem with Pitch Marks are obvious 4.Chance for disease and compaction is very high
The Anatomy of a Golf Course „Therefore, ironically, the turf is often at its healthiest when the golf course is starting to turn brown. “ Tom Doak Golf Course Architect „Therefore, ironically, the turf is often at its healthiest when the golf course is starting to turn brown. “ Tom Doak Golf Course Architect
Soil compaction Normally spaces between soil particles are filled with air and water Soil compaction depends on soil type Soil compaction damage soil structure Soil compaction causes poor, shallow rooting and as result roots receive less oxygen This is causing stress, illnesses and reduced plant growth.
How to identify soil compaction? Visually above ground: After rain or heavy irrigation, water remains on the grass surface. Visually (subsoil profile): waterlogging, black layer, capillary breaking, Smell of the subsoil: typical “rotten eggs” smell. Measuring: There are several devices available: penetrometers, proctor testers, as well as various electrical methods.
What are the reasons of soil compaction? Use of too small tires Use of wrong tire pressure Use of wrong tire tread (profile) Use of too large and heavy machinery Driving on grass during or after heavy rain or irrigation Wrong topdressing sand; particles are too fine Insufficient mechanical soil improvement Pitchmarks
How to prevent soil compaction? Avoid over fertilization and over watering Avoid working under wet conditions; mowing, verticutting, aeration, field sprayers, topdressing, ironing/rolling Eliminate drainage problems Regular mechanical soil cultivation; aeration Use of machines with adequate tyres and/or correct air pressure Close the course / No trollies Repair pitch marks
The soil compaction caused by the golf ball corresponds to at least three passages with a vibrating roller! Photos by Armbruster
How to remove pitch marks? Ignored, poorly or incorrectly repaired ballmarks cause ca.75 % of all problems for balls rolling untruly Prime reason for Poa Annua to spread!!! These small rips in the putting green surface can cause big problems, when not addressed properly. Best tool to repair is PitchPin www.PitchPin.de
How to remove soil compaction? Aeration in combination with topdressing. The following machines can help remove soil compaction: Deep drilling, Vertidrain, Planet Air, slitting, spiking, aeration with hollow spoons or solid spoons and others.
Avoiding new green construction? Construction cost for a new green ca. 30.000,00 bis 50.000,00€ per green, quailty and size Disruption of play Disruption of Flora and Fauna Less income of greenfee Question: Is it really better afterwards? Wrong maintanance afterwards will lead very often to same problems as before
Is deep drilling an alternative? Requirements: Functial and efficent drainage pipes underneath the rootzone. Sand or gravel underneath the rootzone, where water can really trickle off. 3 golfcourses as example
Figures to deep drilling Ca. 7–8 people for one green (500m²) per day Drilling depth max. 50 cm / hole diameter 28 mm Hole distance 20 cm, 50 holes per m² Costs ca.2,40 € per m² only for the deep drilling machine including the driver To the acoount of the club goes the following: Construction site equipment hotel costs for the driver Ca.4-5 Tonnes of sand per green (500m²) depence of deep drilling depth 7-8 People
Conclusion Preventing your course for compaction Why? Understanding the problem ‚Green Illusion‘ and Pitch Marks Significant savings for fertilizer, water and chemicals Significant savings on maintanance budget (10.000,00€ and more each year) Preventing is always better then healing
Communication Communicate to golfers - get the message across 1.Responsibility and respect for mother nature 2.Responsibility and respect for their own course 3.Respect and understanding for greenkeepers and their work 4.Writing an offical Clubphilosophie or vision plan
Thank you so much for your attention! Please feel free to ask questions