2The Channel TunnelThe Channel Tunnel or ‘Chunnel’ is a 32 mile long connection passage located underneath the English ChannelConnects Dover, England to Calais, France
3History of the ideaThe modern idea of a tunnel between the two countries dates back to 1802 when Albert Mathieu formally presented the idea after taking a hot air balloon over the channel.His vision was a tunnel with horse-drawn carriages, illuminated with oil lampsAt the center of his grand vision was a man made island mid- channel for changing horses.
4History of the ideaThe idea was revisited many times during the 1800’s as geologists surveyed the floor of the channel for the ideal place to build a tunnel.In 1881 the Anglo-French Submarine Railway Company began digging on both sides of the channel using the first modern boring machine.
5History of the ideaThe AFRC tunneling experiment proved to be very effective.A nearly 2 km tunnel with a seven foot diameter was created on the English side, while a 1.5 km tunnel was started in France.But cultural issues, political pressure and logistical problems halted this attempt.
6History of the ideaThe idea of the Chunnel continued to be discussed throughout the 20th centuryBut attempts to resume digging were always halted by political fear of strategic disadvantage in war.France and England discussed building the Chunnel to strengthen their alliance after WWI.English scientists later feared that the Germans could attempt to build a Chunnel to invade England during WWII
7History of the ideaIn 1974, almost 30 years after WWII, England and France came to an agreement and construction resumed on both sides of the tunnel.The plan called for two large scale tunnels around a smaller service tunnel. The eventual final design.But in 1975 tunneling was halted again in England.With the English economy struggling, the Labour party didn’t feel such a large scale public project was worth the expense.
8Inception/Eurotunnel In 1981 English prime minister Margaret Thatcher and French president Francois Mitterrand agreed to resurrect the project but under the concept that it could only be done as a privately funded project.In February 1986 England and France entered into the Treaty of Canterbury which drew a formal border on the English Channel between the two countries. This treaty was designed to initiate the project.Negative stakeholders, primarily English ferry boat companies, protested and further delayed construction into 1987.
9The Eurotunnel Plan BOT: Build Operate and Transfer (after 55 years)
14The Eurotunnel PlanThe Eurotunnel plan was unprecedented. It aimed to use to lessons learned from previous attempts to build the biggest private construction project of all time.Contractors would tunnel from both sides of the channel simultaneously. (32 miles total, 23 miles underwater)They used the survey from the 1881 Anglo-French Railway Company to determine its route through a base of chalk that would hopefully prevent water seepage.It also incorporated the 1975 scheme of 3 tunnels(2 train, 1 service).
29Eurotunnel TimeLineJuly 1994 – Opens to the public
30Eurotunnel Project Summary Final cost $14.9 BillionMost Expensive Private Construction Project in World History80% of cost overruns caused by poor planning at inception phaseInterest costs through 2013 have pushed the cost over $20 BillionThe Chunnel will NOT be profitable in the lifetime of its investors
31Eurotunnel PositivesThe modern marvel of our lifetime; like the Pyramids in Egypt, the Great Wall of China31 million people ride it every year cars per hourIt only takes 3.5 hours to travel from Paris to LondonThe Chunnel may outlive human civilization, proving to future life that we were here
32Eurotunnel Video Chunnel Video Link References: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=juLq4RyXTAI - 'Modern Marvels' Documentary