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 The Channel Tunnel or ‘Chunnel’ is a 32 mile long connection passage located underneath the English Channel  Connects Dover, England to Calais, France.

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Presentation on theme: " The Channel Tunnel or ‘Chunnel’ is a 32 mile long connection passage located underneath the English Channel  Connects Dover, England to Calais, France."— Presentation transcript:

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2  The Channel Tunnel or ‘Chunnel’ is a 32 mile long connection passage located underneath the English Channel  Connects Dover, England to Calais, France

3  The modern idea of a tunnel between the two countries dates back to 1802 when Albert Mathieu formally presented the idea after taking a hot air balloon over the channel.  His vision was a tunnel with horse-drawn carriages, illuminated with oil lamps  At the center of his grand vision was a man made island mid- channel for changing horses.

4  The idea was revisited many times during the 1800’s as geologists surveyed the floor of the channel for the ideal place to build a tunnel.  In 1881 the Anglo-French Submarine Railway Company began digging on both sides of the channel using the first modern boring machine.

5  The AFRC tunneling experiment proved to be very effective.  A nearly 2 km tunnel with a seven foot diameter was created on the English side, while a 1.5 km tunnel was started in France.  But cultural issues, political pressure and logistical problems halted this attempt.

6  The idea of the Chunnel continued to be discussed throughout the 20 th century  But attempts to resume digging were always halted by political fear of strategic disadvantage in war.  France and England discussed building the Chunnel to strengthen their alliance after WWI.  English scientists later feared that the Germans could attempt to build a Chunnel to invade England during WWII

7  In 1974, almost 30 years after WWII, England and France came to an agreement and construction resumed on both sides of the tunnel.  The plan called for two large scale tunnels around a smaller service tunnel. The eventual final design.  But in 1975 tunneling was halted again in England.  With the English economy struggling, the Labour party didn’t feel such a large scale public project was worth the expense.

8  In 1981 English prime minister Margaret Thatcher and French president Francois Mitterrand agreed to resurrect the project but under the concept that it could only be done as a privately funded project.  In February 1986 England and France entered into the Treaty of Canterbury which drew a formal border on the English Channel between the two countries. This treaty was designed to initiate the project.  Negative stakeholders, primarily English ferry boat companies, protested and further delayed construction into 1987.

9 BOT: Build Operate and Transfer (after 55 years)

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11 English Staging Area

12 French Staging Area

13 Train Door Redesign

14  The Eurotunnel plan was unprecedented. It aimed to use to lessons learned from previous attempts to build the biggest private construction project of all time.  Contractors would tunnel from both sides of the channel simultaneously. (32 miles total, 23 miles underwater)  They used the survey from the 1881 Anglo-French Railway Company to determine its route through a base of chalk that would hopefully prevent water seepage.  It also incorporated the 1975 scheme of 3 tunnels(2 train, 1 service).

15 The Boring Machine

16  Bank investment forecast issues  Too many contractors Too many moving parts

17  Two Governments + Financiers

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24  June 1988 – Construction Begins in France

25  Dec – Construction Begins in England

26  Oct. 30, 1990 – Breakthrough Point

27  July 1991 – All three tunnels complete

28  May Dedication

29  July 1994 – Opens to the public

30  Final cost $14.9 Billion  Most Expensive Private Construction Project in World History  80% of cost overruns caused by poor planning at inception phase  Interest costs through 2013 have pushed the cost over $20 Billion  The Chunnel will NOT be profitable in the lifetime of its investors

31  The modern marvel of our lifetime; like the Pyramids in Egypt, the Great Wall of China  31 million people ride it every year cars per hour  It only takes 3.5 hours to travel from Paris to London  The Chunnel may outlive human civilization, proving to future life that we were here

32 Chunnel Video Link https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=juLq4RyXTAI - 'Modern Marvels' Documentaryhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=juLq4RyXTAI References:


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