Presentation on theme: "Introduction questions:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Topic 2 - Biotic and Abiotic Influences on Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems Introduction questions:What part of this picture is aquatic and what parts are terrestrial?What are some of the biotic components of this lake ecosystem? What are some of the abiotic components in this lake ecosystem?How do you think humans impact the terrestrial ecosystem? What are some ways humans can impact the aquatic ecosystem?
2 Biotic and Abiotic Influences on Ecosystems Limiting Factor = any factor that limits the size of a population or where it can liveTolerance Range = the range of abiotic conditions which a species can survive
3 Abiotic Limiting Factors – Terrestrial Examples of how humans affect abiotic factors in a terrestrial ecosystem:LightCutting trees to expose plants underneath to more lightWaterDamming rivers decreases water availableIrrigating fields increases water available in an ecosystem
4 Temperature Nutrients Global warming reduces habitat for animals adapted to cold temperatureNutrientsAdding fertilizer to soil increases available nutrients
5 Abiotic Limiting Factors – Aquatic Examples of how humans affect abiotic factors in an aquatic ecosystem:LightStirring up sediment at the bottom of a lake decreases amount of light reaching plantsSalinity (Salt Levels)Run-off from salting high ways in the winter increases salt concentration in rivers and lakesPicture: sediment plumes from bottom trawler fishing boats
6 Temperature Nutrients Acidity Industries release heated water into lakes and rivers killing fish and other organismsNutrientsFertilizer can run-off causing algal bloomsAcidityBurning of fossil fuels creates acid rain which makes bodies of water more acidic- Algal blooms form when excess phosphorus and nitrogen from fertilizers run off from farms. The fertilizer encourages the growth of naturally occurring algae. Eventually, the algae decomposes. The decomposition of algae and the bacteria involved in the decomposition process use up the oxygen present in the body of water. Organisms in the lake suffocate and die due to lack of oxygen.- The algal bloom also prevents sunlight from reaching aquatic plants and slow down photosynthesis, which further decreases the concentrations of oxygen in the body of water
7 Biotic Limiting Factors – Species Interactions Examples of biotic factors in ecosystems:CompetitionOrganisms compete for the same limited resources: food, water, habitat, light, matesPredationPredator (the organism that hunts) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked)The populations of the predator and prey depend on each other(more on this topic next day…)
8 A male lion with his cub eating a water buffalo INSERT VIDEO LINKA male lion with his cub eating a water buffaloPraying Mantis eating a grasshopperIndian python attempting to swallow a deerLynx and a hare
9 Biotic Limiting Factors – Species Interactions Symbiotic Relationships between organisms:Mutualism (+ and +)Two organisms benefit from each otherCommensalism (+ and 0)One organism benefits and the other neither benefits nor is harmedParasitism (+ and -)One individual lives on or in a host organism and feeds on itFlower provides the bee with nectar, the bee helps the flower spread its pollenOrchids grow on the trunks or branches of trees to receive more light. As long as the plant is not too heavy, the tree is not affected.Other notes:- While the orchid isn’t considered a parasitic plants, there are many other plant species (ex. strangler fig tree) that IS parasitic. It uses its host for support while draining nutrients from the host, eventually killing the host tree.- Cuckoo birds also are a good example of a species of bird that practices brood parasitismThe cowbird lays their eggs in the nests of other birds (like the reed warbler). The reed warbler mother must spend more time feeding the larger and more demanding cowbird
10 Mutualism (+ and +)Stinging anemone tentacles provide the clownfish with protection from predators. The clownfish defend anemones against butterflyfish which eat the anemones.Bacteria live in the nodules of legumes (ex. soybeans) and provide nitrogen for the plant. The plant provides sugars for the bacteria.
11 Red-billed oxpecker and the Impala Cleaner wrasses and whale shark Egyptian Plover and Nile crocodileCow (or other ungulates) and E.coli bacteria
12 Buffalo and Cattle Egrets Commensalism (+ and 0)Shark and a remora fishRamora gets free ride + foodBuffalo and Cattle EgretsCattle Egrets and Livestock – as livestock (ex. buffalo) graze in the fields, their movements stir up insects which the egrets eat. The egrets benefit from the interaction while the livestock is unharmed.Remora Fish and Shark – the remora (also sometimes called a “suckerfish”) attaches to the shark for transportation. In this way, the remora travels much farther than it would otherwise be able to without the shark.Whales and Barnacles – the barnacles attach to the whale for transportation and is exposed to new food sources it would not otherwise be able to access.Whales and barnacles
13 A roundworm inside a person’s eye… EWWW!!! Parasitism (+ and -)Parasite receives nourishment from hostParasites don’t normally kill host but the host is harmedA roundworm inside a person’s eye… EWWW!!!Numerous roundworms from the bowel of a dog post-surgery…. DOUBLE EWWW!!
14 Human head lice feeds on blood from the scalp Bed bugs… inside a mattress… do you see the bed bug fecal matter?!? EW!Caribbean soldierfish host to a parasitic isopod, which feeds on its body tissuesHuman head lice feeds on blood from the scalp