2Prepositions(it is one of the parts of speech)A preposition is a word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word
3Prepositions Ex: Your math book is underneath your coat, Allen. [The preposition underneath shows the relationship of coat to book]Ex: The one behind us honked his horn.[The preposition behind shows the relationship of us to one]
4PrepositionsI hit the ball over the net. I hit the ball into the net. I hit the ball under the net. I hit the ball against the net. I hit the ball across the net. *Notice how changing the preposition in the sentences changes the relationship between hit and net.
5PrepositionsCopy the following common prepositions into your Interactive Notebook
6PrepositionsCompound prepositions-prepositions made up of more than one word-according to next to-aside from on account of-because of out of-in addition to in spite of-in place of
7Prepositions Let’s classify the prepositions….. Remember that they tell when, where, how, and why
8Prepositions Let’s identify some prepositions: Yesterday, I planted a sapling behind the garage.They lived near the airport.I received a letter from my aunt.There are many uses for peanuts.The cat is in the tree.
9PrepositionsPrepositional phrase- a phrase that includes a preposition, a noun or pronoun called the object of the preposition and any modifiers of that objectEx: You can press those leaves under glass.*glass is the object of the prepositionLets go back to our sentences and identify the prepositional phrases with their objects
10Prepositions Your turn: Complete your examples for your interactive notebook and glue/tape in.Complete pg 106 Ex 12 in orange textbook. Write the prepositional phrases in the sentences. Underline the preposition once and its object twice.
11Prepositions Let’s identify some prepositions: Yesterday, I planted a sapling behind the garage.They lived near the airport.I received a letter from my aunt.There are many uses for peanuts.The cat is in the tree.
12Where’s Urkel?Take a look at the following pictures and find Steve Urkel. Write a prepositional phrase that describes where he is.
18Preposition or Adverb?Some words may be used either as prepositions or as adverbs. Remember that a preposition always has an object. An adverb never does.Rule: You can decide whether a word is used as an adverb or preposition by seeing if it has an object.
19Preposition or Adverb? Watch what this means: Adverb: I haven’t seen him since.Preposition: I haven’t seen him since Thursday. (Thursday is the object of the preposition since)
20Preposition or Adverb? Watch what this means: Adverb: The bear walked around and then went inside.Preposition: The bear walked around the yard and then went inside the cabin.(Yard is the object of the preposition around. Cabin is the object of inside.)
21Identifying adverbs and Prepositions Directions: Identify the italicized word in each of the following sentences as either an adverb or a preposition.He watches as the hunter slowly brings the pistol up. Remington knows that this island is feared by every sailor that passes by.In fact, among sailors, the place is known as Death Island.Someone invites the girl inside.A man with a pistol in his hand answers the door.John has finally discovered the secret about the island.P
22So, What exactly is a phrase? A Phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject.3 Types:Prepositional phrase-in the kitchen (no subject or verb)Verb phrase- could have been hiding (no subject)Infinitive phrase- to go with them (no subject or verb)
23Phrases Remember :a phrase doesn’t contain a subject or a verb. Phrase or not a Phrase?when you know how she rememberedas they walked in smiling brightlyin the garden to the storeis sleeping where the car is
24Adverb Phrases Adjective Phrases We have learned how to identify and write prepositional phrases in sentences, but prepositional phrases can be broken down into 2 more categories:Adverb PhrasesAdjective Phrases
25Adjective PhraseAdjective phrase- a prepositional phrase used as an adjective -it modifies a noun or a pronoun Answers: -What kind? -How many? -Which one? -How much?
26Adjective PhraseEx: She chose the one with blue stripes. (with blue stripes is used as an adjective modifying one) *This is because its answering the question WHICH ONE?
27What kind? Which one? How many? Adjective PhraseRemember: Prepositional phrases can be used as adjectives when they answer…..How much?What kind?Which one?How many?
28Adjective Phrase While she was a student in France, Marie met Pierre. Let’s take a look at some examples: Identify the adjective phrase and find what word the phrase modifies:While she was a student in France, Marie met Pierre.Pierre had already gained fame as a scientist.Paris was where the two of them became friends.Their enthusiasm for science brought them together.
29Adjective PhraseTry it with a partner: P1: The year after their marriage another scientist discovered uranium. P2: Ice reduces swelling of the injured area. P1: Ice helps because it deadens pain and slows the loss of blood. P2: The effect of gravity helps fluid drain away.
30Adjective phrases always modify a noun! Remember: Prepositional phrases can be used as adjectives when they answer…..How much?What kind?Which one?How many?Adjective phrases always modify a noun!
31Adjective PhraseWrite the sentences in your notebook under your notes. Underline the adjective phrase and circle the noun it modifies.1. The main character in the story is a young boy.2. He is a visitor from another planet.3. Part of the treasure map is missing.4. The road along the coastline has the best views.5. Several of the eggs are cracked.6. The sign on the bench said "WET PAINT."7. I would like a bike with ten speeds.9. The gate to the playground is locked.
32Adverb PhraseRemember that prepositional phrases can be classified into two categories: Adjective Phrase Adverb Phrase
33Adverb PhraseLet’s review what an adverb even is…………. Adverbs answer when?, where?, why?, how?, how often?, how long?, and to what extent?
34Identifying adverbsAdverbs are a part of speech that makes the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb more definite.Where?Here, there, away, up, outsideWhen?Now, then, later, soon, agoHow?Clearly, easily, quietly, slowly, carefullyHow often or How long?Never, always, often, seldom, frequently, usually, foreverTo what extent or How much?Very, hardly, almost, so, really, most, nearly, quite, less, only
35Identifying AdverbsWe know that adjectives modify nouns, but adverbs are the words that modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. Ex: The cat ran quickly up the tree.The cat ran how? Quickly up the tree.Quickly is the adverb and it modifies ran
36Identifying AdverbsListen to me identify some adverbs with their modifiers.If you look closely at the map, you can find Brazil.Brazilians often say Bom dia, which means good day.My aunt travels frequently to Brazil.
37Adverb PhraseAdverb phrase- prepositional phrase used as an adverb -modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb They answer: When? How? How often? To what extent? Where? Why? How long?
38Adverb Phrase How? Where? How long? When? To what extent? Why? Ex: The soldiers will reach the fort by noon. (this phrase answers when) Remember: Adverb phrases tell….How long?When?To what extent?How?Where?Why?
39Adverb PhraseUnlike adjective phrases, which follow the word or words they modify, adverb phrases may appear at various places in sentences: At dusk, we went inside to eat dinner. We went inside at dusk to eat dinner. We went inside to eat dinner at dusk.
40Adverb Phrase Let’s identify some adverb phrases and their modifiers: When he was a baby, John fell into the river.2. His parents searched for him but couldn’t find him.3. He was saved by coyotes, who raised him4. He thought for many years he was a coyote.5. A mountain lion once leaped from a ledge above Bill’s head.
41The library is open during the day HintWhen determining if a phrase is an adjective or adverb phrase, remember that an adjective phrase almost always follows the word it modifies. **If you can move the phrase without changing the meaning of the sentence, the phrase is probably an adverb phrase*******The library is open during the day
42Adverb PhraseWith a shoulder partner, take turns reading the sentences aloud to find the adverb phrase and the word it modifies. P1: She drove for hours. P2: The library is open on the weekends. P1: Saturday, we will rehearse before the game. P2: I saw the clouds and turned toward home.