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The Scientific Caterpillar

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Review – Scientific Method Lab Title Goal (what you want to accomplish) Problem (question) Hypothesis (what you think will happen, based on experience and research If… then…) Independent Variable (one thing you change) Dependent Variable (what you measure) Materials (shopping list) Procedure (number each step) Data (data table or chart and written observations and pictures) Results – graph your data Conclusion 1.Explain how your hypothesis was supported/not supported by the data from your experiment 2.Identify any possible errors or factors that could have affected your experiment 3.Discuss what you might do differently next time and what other related experiments you would want to do 4.What did you learn about the standard or goal

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What is the Scientific Method? The Scientific Method is a process that is used to find answers to questions about the world around us. There are several versions of the Scientific Method. Some have a few steps and some have more steps. All versions begin with the same thing – the identification of an idea, problem, or question based on observations of the world around us.

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Problem (aka – Testable Question) A good problem comes from a GREAT idea! Must be TESTABLE QUESTION – one that can be answered by conducting an experiment. Do not select a question that can be answered by doing research. Must provide data that can be measured – no questions that can just be answered yes or no

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Testable Question? Can I create an experiment to find the answer? Does it provide data to be measured? Is it NOT a yes or no question? Which gum makes the biggest bubble? Which gum is the most expensive? How does an eye work? Which brand of football gloves are the stickiest? Which brand of football gloves are made with leather? Does fertilizer affect plant growth? Which fertilizer causes plants to grow the tallest? Can I make a volcano with baking soda and vinegar?

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Notes for Problem Lift up the PROBLEM circle underneath write: TESTABLE QUESTION

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Hypothesis Form a Hypothesis – Educated Guess This is a possible solution to the problem. Test the Hypothesis - An experiment is performed to determine if the hypothesis is supported or not (there is no right or wrong). You can gain valuable information even when your results do not support your hypothesis.

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HYPOTHESIS Written in the IF – THEN – BECAUSE format If the variable plants received double the fertilizer, then they will grow taller because they are receiving more nutrients.

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Notes for Problem & Hypothesis Lift up the HYPOTHESIS circle and underneath write: Educated guess IF, THEN, BECAUSE.

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Variables Independent Variable The 1 thing YOU change What is tested What is manipulated ***Amount of fertilizer Dependent Variable What you MEASURE What is observed What is measured The data collected during the investigation Affected by the independent variable ***Height of plants Controlled Variable Variables that are not changed Also called constants Used for comparisons Allow for a “fair test” ***Sunlight, water, soil, type of plant, ect.

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Identify the variables Students of different ages were given the same jigsaw puzzle to put together. They were timed to see how long it took to finish the puzzle. Independent Variable Ages of students Dependent Variable Time it took to put the puzzle together Controlled variable Same puzzle

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Identify the variables The higher the temperature of water, the faster an egg will float. Independent Variable Temperature of water Dependent Variable Time for the egg to float Controlled variable Same egg

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Identify the variables A group of students was allowed to listen to music during a test while the other group was not. Test scores were then collected and compared. Independent Variable Music Dependent Variable Test scores Controlled variable Same test

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Identify the variables Students each bounced a basketball, a tennis ball, and a bouncy ball on the floor to see which would bounce higher. Independent Variable Type of ball Dependent Variable Height ball bounces Controlled variable Floor, height ball was dropped from

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Variables Lift up the VARIABLES circle and underneath write: Independent –change Dependent –measure Control – same 4. VARIABLES

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Materials Shopping list Numbered! Lots of DETAILS! – 1 ¾ liter water – not some water – 4 pieces of 8 ½” by 11” plain white computer paper – not paper

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What could be improved on this list? Aluminum foil Water Paper 1 box Toothpicks 8 Rubber bands 2 glasses

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Example of Materials: 1 25 ft roll of aluminum foil 2 liter bottle of drinking water 2 sheets of newspaper I box of 200 flat, wooden toothpicks 8 small Rubber bands measuring no more than 2” long 2 clear, drinking glasses able to hold at least one liter of water

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Materials Lift up the MATERIALS circle and underneath write: Detailed list 5. MATERIALS

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Procedure Numbered! Step by step directions so that someone else could do your experiment exactly the same way. Very SPECIFIC Explanation of experiment Number of times to do the experiment

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What is the correct order?

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Procedure Lift up the PROCEDURE circle and underneath write: Numbered Step – by –step 6. PROCEDURE

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Data Data table or chart and written observations and pictures Scientists usually use metric units of measurement TreeHeight# of LeavesLocation Redwood87 meters5,687California Fern45 meters6,478Minnesota Pine13 meters256Flagstaff

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Data Lift up the DATA circle and underneath write: Chart 7. DATA

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Results Graph Provide information in pictures. Organize the data so it can be analyzed. Make it easier to quickly understand relationships in the data.

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Bar Graphs When data is grouped in categories, that may not be in order. Shows countable data with horizontal or vertical bars.

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Circle or Pie Graphs Compares parts to the whole. Shows how the parts of data are related to the whole and to each other.

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Line Graphs Show patterns of ordered data over time. Shows how data will change over time.

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Graphs Did you select the correct type of graph for your data? Are all of your graphs correctly labeled with: – Title – X-axis labeled – Y-axis labeled – Units of measurements are labeled (in metric) – Proper scale – the appropriate high and low values – Data plotted correctly and clearly Use a ruler and color If you have more than one set of data, show each set with a different color or symbol. – Include a legend if necessary

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Remember - SULTAN S cale U nits of measurement L abels – x & y axis T itle A ccuracy N eatness (ruler and color)

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Circle 8 Lift up the RESULTS circle and underneath write: Graphs Bar, line or circle SULTAN 8. RESULTS

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Select the correct graph VOTE A, B, C or D With your hands

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Which is the right graph? 1. A __________ shows changes over time. a) circle graph b) line graph c) bar graph d) double bar graph

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Which is the right graph? 1. A __________ shows changes over time. b) line graph

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Which is the right graph? 2. A ____________ is used to represent data as part of a whole. a) circle graph b) pictograph c) line graph d) bar graph

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Which is the right graph? 2. A ____________ is used to represent data as part of a whole. a) circle graph

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Which is the right graph? 3. Brittany wanted to keep track of how many pieces of gum she chewed in a week. On Monday, she chewed 4 pieces, Tuesday 3 pieces, Wednesday 6 pieces, Thursday 5 pieces, Friday 2 pieces, Saturday 8 pieces and Sunday 3 pieces. Which of the following graphs would be best for this data? a) circle graph b) double bar graph c) line graph d) pictograph

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Which is the right graph? 3. Brittany wanted to keep track of how many pieces of gum she chewed in a week. On Monday, she chewed 4 pieces, Tuesday 3 pieces, Wednesday 6 pieces, Thursday 5 pieces, Friday 2 pieces, Saturday 8 pieces and Sunday 3 pieces. Which of the following graphs would be best for this data? c) line graph

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Which is the right graph? 4. Sandy made $100 for babysitting for 3 days. She went to the mall to spend her money. She spent $50 on clothing, $20 on jewelry, $15 on makeup, $10 on a CD, and $5 on food. What type of graph should Sandy use to show her mom how she spent the money? a) bar graph b) pictograph c) line graph d) circle graph

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Which is the right graph? 4. Sandy made $100 for babysitting for 3 days. She went to the mall to spend her money. She spent $50 on clothing, $20 on jewelry, $15 on makeup, $10 on a CD, and $5 on food. What type of graph should Sandy use to show her mom how she spent the money? d) circle graph

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Which is the right graph? 5. Grandma Fryman decided to make some cookies for her grandchildren. She made 3 batches of chocolate chip cookies, 2 batches of sugar cookies, 4 batches of peanut butter cookies and 6 batches of oatmeal cookies. What type of graph would Grandma use to display this data? a) circle graph b) double bar graph c) line graph d) bar graph

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Which is the right graph? 5. Grandma Fryman decided to make some cookies for her grandchildren. She made 3 batches of chocolate chip cookies, 2 batches of sugar cookies, 4 batches of peanut butter cookies and 6 batches of oatmeal cookies. What type of graph would Grandma use to display this data? d) bar graph

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Summarizing Your Data You have collected, recorded, and graphed all your data. Now it is time to decide if your hypothesis is correct or not.

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Hypothesis: Tomato plants will grow the tallest if they if they get 12 hours of light each day because research states they need plenty of light. Amount of light per day: Plant A: 12 hours Plant B: 9 hours Plant C: 6 hours Based on the data, was they hypothesis supported?

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Hypothesis: Styrofoam will keep ice frozen the longest because they are made from polystyrene, a material which traps air, and Styrofoam coolers are very popular. Based on the data, was they hypothesis supported?

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Conclusion Use your data/results to write your conclusion. 1.Explain how your hypothesis was supported/not supported by the data from your experiment. 2.Identify any possible errors or factors that could have affected your experiment. 3.Discuss what you might do differently next time and what other related experiments you would want to do.

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Conclusion Lift up the CONCLUSION circle and underneath write: Hypothesis supported? Use DATA Reflect – What did you learn? 9. CONCLUSION

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PROBLEM Testable Question HYPOTHESIS Educated Guess IF- THEN- BECAUSE VARIABLES Independent – change Dependent – Measure Control - Same MATERIALS Detailed List PROCEDURE Numbered Step-by-Step DATA Chart RESULTS Graphs Bar, line or circle SULTAN CONCLUSION Hypothesis supported? Use data Reflect – what did you learn?

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PROBLEM HYPOTHESIS VARIABLES MATERIALS PROCEDURE DATA RESULTS CONCLUSION

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