2Review – Scientific Method Lab TitleGoal (what you want to accomplish)Problem (question)Hypothesis (what you think will happen, based on experience and research If… then…)Independent Variable (one thing you change)Dependent Variable (what you measure)Materials (shopping list)Procedure (number each step)Data (data table or chart and written observations and pictures)Results – graph your dataConclusionExplain how your hypothesis was supported/not supported by the data from your experimentIdentify any possible errors or factors that could have affected your experimentDiscuss what you might do differently next time and what other related experiments you would want to doWhat did you learn about the standard or goal
3What is the Scientific Method? The Scientific Method is a process that is used to find answers to questions about the world around us. There are several versions of the Scientific Method. Some have a few steps and some have more steps.All versions begin with the same thing – the identification of an idea, problem, or question based on observations of the world around us.
4Problem (aka – Testable Question) A good problem comes from a GREAT idea!Must be TESTABLE QUESTION – one that can be answered by conducting an experiment.Do not select a question that can be answered by doing research.Must provide data that can be measured – no questions that can just be answered yes or no
5Testable Question. Can I create an experiment to find the answer Testable Question? Can I create an experiment to find the answer? Does it provide data to be measured? Is it NOT a yes or no question?Which gum makes the biggest bubble?Which gum is the most expensive?How does an eye work?Which brand of football gloves are the stickiest?Which brand of football gloves are made with leather?Does fertilizer affect plant growth?Which fertilizer causes plants to grow the tallest?Can I make a volcano with baking soda and vinegar?
6Notes for Problem Lift up the PROBLEM circle underneath write: TESTABLE QUESTION
7HypothesisForm a Hypothesis – Educated Guess This is a possible solution to the problem.Test the Hypothesis - An experiment is performed to determine if the hypothesis is supported or not (there is no right or wrong).You can gain valuable information even when your results do not support your hypothesis.
8HYPOTHESIS Written in the IF – THEN – BECAUSE format If the variable plants received double the fertilizer, then they will grow taller because they are receiving more nutrients.
9Notes for Problem & Hypothesis Lift up the HYPOTHESIS circle and underneath write:Educated guessIF, THEN, BECAUSE.
10Variables Independent Variable Dependent Variable The 1 thing YOU changeWhat is testedWhat is manipulated***Amount of fertilizerWhat you MEASUREWhat is observedWhat is measuredThe data collected during the investigationAffected by the independent variable***Height of plantsControlled VariableVariables that are not changedAlso called constantsUsed for comparisonsAllow for a “fair test”***Sunlight, water, soil, type of plant, ect.
11Identify the variables Students of different ages were given the same jigsaw puzzle to put together. They were timed to see how long it took to finish the puzzle.Independent VariableAges of studentsTime it took to put the puzzle togetherDependent VariableControlled variableSame puzzle
12Identify the variables The higher the temperature of water, the faster an egg will float.Controlled variableSame eggDependent VariableTime for the egg to floatIndependent VariableTemperature of water
13Identify the variables A group of students was allowed to listen to music during a test while the other group was not. Test scores were then collected and compared.Dependent VariableTest scoresMusicIndependent VariableControlled variableSame test
14Identify the variables Students each bounced a basketball, a tennis ball, and a bouncy ball on the floor to see which would bounce higher.Independent VariableType of ballDependent VariableHeight ball bouncesControlled variableFloor, height ball was dropped from
15Variables Independent –change Dependent –measure Control – same Lift up the VARIABLES circle and underneath write:Independent –changeDependent –measureControl – same4. VARIABLES
16Materials Shopping list Numbered! Lots of DETAILS! 1 ¾ liter water – not some water4 pieces of 8 ½” by 11” plain white computer paper – not paper
17What could be improved on this list? Aluminum foilWaterPaper1 box Toothpicks8 Rubber bands2 glasses
18Example of Materials: 1 25 ft roll of aluminum foil 2 liter bottle of drinking water2 sheets of newspaperI box of 200 flat, wooden toothpicks8 small Rubber bands measuring no more than 2” long2 clear, drinking glasses able to hold at least one liter of water
19Materials Lift up the MATERIALS circle and underneath write: Detailed list5. MATERIALS
20ProcedureNumbered!Step by step directions so that someone else could do your experiment exactly the same way.Very SPECIFICExplanation of experimentNumber of times to do the experiment
22Procedure Lift up the PROCEDURE circle and underneath write: Numbered Step – by –step6. PROCEDURE
23Data Data table or chart and written observations and pictures Scientists usually use metric units of measurementTreeHeight# of LeavesLocationRedwood87 meters5,687CaliforniaFern45 meters6,478MinnesotaPine13 meters256Flagstaff
24DataLift up the DATA circle and underneath write:Chart7.DATA
25Results Graph Provide information in pictures. Organize the data so it can be analyzed.Make it easier to quickly understand relationships in the data.
26Bar GraphsWhen data is grouped in categories, that may not be in order.Shows countable data with horizontal or vertical bars.
27Circle or Pie Graphs Compares parts to the whole. Shows how the parts of data are related to the whole and to each other.
28Line Graphs Show patterns of ordered data over time. Shows how data will change over time.
29Graphs Use a ruler and color Did you select the correct type of graph for your data?Are all of your graphs correctly labeled with:TitleX-axis labeledY-axis labeledUnits of measurements are labeled (in metric)Proper scale – the appropriate high and low valuesData plotted correctly and clearlyUse a ruler and colorIf you have more than one set of data, show each set with a different color or symbol.Include a legend if necessary
30Remember - SULTAN Scale Units of measurement Labels – x & y axis Title AccuracyNeatness (ruler and color)
31Circle 8 Lift up the RESULTS circle and underneath write: Graphs Bar, line or circleSULTAN8.RESULTS
32Select the correct graph VOTE A, B, C or DWith your hands
33Which is the right graph? 1. A __________ shows changes over time.a) circle graph b) line graph c) bar graph d) double bar graph
34Which is the right graph? 1. A __________ shows changes over time.b) line graph
35Which is the right graph? 2. A ____________ is used to represent data as part of a whole.a) circle graph b) pictograph c) line graph d) bar graph
36Which is the right graph? 2. A ____________ is used to represent data as part of a whole.a) circle graph
37Which is the right graph? 3. Brittany wanted to keep track of how many pieces of gum she chewed in a week. On Monday, she chewed 4 pieces, Tuesday 3 pieces, Wednesday 6 pieces, Thursday 5 pieces, Friday 2 pieces, Saturday 8 pieces and Sunday 3 pieces. Which of the following graphs would be best for this data? a) circle graph b) double bar graph c) line graph d) pictograph
38Which is the right graph? 3. Brittany wanted to keep track of how many pieces of gum she chewed in a week. On Monday, she chewed 4 pieces, Tuesday 3 pieces, Wednesday 6 pieces, Thursday 5 pieces, Friday 2 pieces, Saturday 8 pieces and Sunday 3 pieces. Which of the following graphs would be best for this data?c) line graph
39Which is the right graph? 4. Sandy made $100 for babysitting for 3 days. She went to the mall to spend her money. She spent $50 on clothing, $20 on jewelry, $15 on makeup, $10 on a CD, and $5 on food. What type of graph should Sandy use to show her mom how she spent the money? a) bar graph b) pictograph c) line graph d) circle graph
40Which is the right graph? 4. Sandy made $100 for babysitting for 3 days. She went to the mall to spend her money. She spent $50 on clothing, $20 on jewelry, $15 on makeup, $10 on a CD, and $5 on food. What type of graph should Sandy use to show her mom how she spent the money?d) circle graph
41Which is the right graph? 5. Grandma Fryman decided to make some cookies for her grandchildren. She made 3 batches of chocolate chip cookies, 2 batches of sugar cookies, 4 batches of peanut butter cookies and 6 batches of oatmeal cookies. What type of graph would Grandma use to display this data? a) circle graph b) double bar graph c) line graph d) bar graph
42Which is the right graph? 5. Grandma Fryman decided to make some cookies for her grandchildren. She made 3 batches of chocolate chip cookies, 2 batches of sugar cookies, 4 batches of peanut butter cookies and 6 batches of oatmeal cookies. What type of graph would Grandma use to display this data?d) bar graph
43Summarizing Your DataYou have collected, recorded, and graphed all your data.Now it is time to decide if your hypothesis is correct or not.
44Based on the data, was they hypothesis supported? Hypothesis: Tomato plants will grow the tallest if they if they get 12 hours of light each day because research states they need plenty of light.Amount of light per day:Plant A: 12 hours Plant B: 9 hours Plant C: 6 hoursBased on the data, was they hypothesis supported?
45Based on the data, was they hypothesis supported? Hypothesis: Styrofoam will keep ice frozen the longest because they are made from polystyrene, a material which traps air, and Styrofoam coolers are very popular.Based on the data, was they hypothesis supported?
46Use your data/results to write your conclusion. Explain how your hypothesis was supported/not supported by the data from your experiment.Identify any possible errors or factors that could have affected your experiment.Discuss what you might do differently next time and what other related experiments you would want to do.
47Conclusion Lift up the CONCLUSION circle and underneath write: Hypothesis supported?Use DATAReflect – What did you learn?9. CONCLUSION
48Reflect – what did you learn? CONCLUSIONHypothesis supported?Use dataReflect – what did you learn?HYPOTHESISEducated GuessIF- THEN- BECAUSEVARIABLESIndependent – changeDependent – MeasureControl - SameRESULTSGraphsBar, line or circleSULTANPROBLEMTestableQuestionMATERIALSDetailed ListDATAChartPROCEDURENumberedStep-by-Step
49VARIABLES RESULTS PROBLEM MATERIALS DATA PROCEDURE CONCLUSIONHYPOTHESISVARIABLESRESULTSPROBLEMMATERIALSDATAPROCEDURE