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The Formation, Size, Shape and Layers of the Earth.

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Presentation on theme: "The Formation, Size, Shape and Layers of the Earth."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Formation, Size, Shape and Layers of the Earth

2 Condense and Converge  Condense: To become more compact  Converge: To come together

3 Steps: Formation of the Solar System 1. Large, cold cloud of dust and gas condenses- typically in a nebula 2. The cloud spins, heating the material and dividing the cloud into a cold disk of rock and ice surrounded by hotter gas

4 Formation Continued 3. Fusion first occurs in the new star (the Sun) and little planets form 4.Over time, nearly all of the original material becomes a part of the star and its orbiting planets

5 Formation of the Solar System Formation of the Solar System

6 Fusion  The coming together of certain elements (in the case of the sun; hydrogen) that result in helium and the release of large amounts of energy.

7 Earth’s Interior  The heated materials that formed the Earth sorted out by density  Inner core: Composed of solid iron and nickel (solid due to intense pressure)  Outer core: Composed of liquid iron and nickel.  Mantle: The thickest layer of Earth, composed of iron, silicon, and magnesium. The mantle is a solid that can act like a liquid  Crust: Thin, rigid layer of lighter rocks. Includes Earth’s surface


9 Smooth Oblate Spheroid  The Earth has a polar axis that is shorter than the diameter of the equatorial circle, therefore, the Earth bulges at the middle.  Even with mountains like Everest, the Earth is relatively very smooth  Good models of Earth’s true appearance are billiard balls, marbles, and ping pong balls

10 Size and Shape of the Earth (do not write)  The total surface area of the Earth is about 510 million square kilometers, which is equivalent to about 55 continental United States

11 Percentages  29% of Earth’s surface is dry land  71% is covered by water  The percentage covered by water is slowly increasing as polar ice melts

12 Axis and Orbit  Axis: Imaginary straight line through Earth between the North and South Pole, tilted at 23.5 degrees

13 Kepler’s First Law  Each planet orbits the Sun in a shape called an ellipse

14  Ellipse: An oval shape that is centered on two points (foci) or a single point (in the case of a circle)

15 Orbit  The path of a celestial object or an artificial satellite as it revolves around another object

16 FYI-DO NOT WRITE! Did you know we’re spinning right now?  The Earth rotates at 1000 mph at the equator  The Earth rotates at about 700-900 mph here  The Earth is also revolving around the sun at 67,000 mph  Earth's Rotation Earth's Rotation  Earth's Revolution Earth's Revolution

17 Rotation  The Earth makes one complete turn every 24 hours (that’s 360 degrees)  Earth rotates at 15 degrees of longitude per hour  Earth rotates counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere  Rotation causes the sun to appear to rise in the east and set in the west

18 Evidence of Rotation  Foucault Pendulum: (DO NOT WRITE) a ball and wire is suspended and set into motion along a meridian. The pendulum will line up with different markings on the ground basically showing that the Earth is moving underneath the wire and ball)  Foucault's Pendulum Foucault's Pendulum


20 More evidence  Coriolis Effect: The curving of winds to the right in the Northern Hemisphere caused by Earth’s rotation  Without rotation, winds would blow straight from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure  If you launch a rocket and do not account for the Earth rotating underneath the rocket, you will miss your target

21 Coriolis Effect Example (Do not write)  If you flush a toilet in the Northern Hemisphere, the water will swirl to the left (counterclockwise). If you flush a toilet in the Southern Hemisphere, the water will swirl to the right (clockwise)… Take a look the next time you visit the loo!


23 Revolution  Revolution: The orbital movement of an object around another object  The Earth revolves 1 degree per day  The Earth revolves once around the sun every 365.25 days

24 Proofs of Revolution  Proofs:  Parallax: Apparent shift of objects in the sky at different times of year  The seasons (DO NOT WRITE.. JUST FYI- If we did not revolve, the Earth would not vary in tilting towards and away from the sun, meaning that seasons would not exist ->Side note: We’re actually 3 million miles closer to the Sun in January than in July!!!)


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