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Lizette Torres Mina Yanny Per. 3

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1 Lizette Torres Mina Yanny Per. 3
Brain Lizette Torres Mina Yanny Per. 3

2 Function of the Brain The control network for the body’s functions and abilities It is in charge of things your body needs to stay alive Tells your body what to do

3 Layers of the Meninges The Dura Mater The Arachnoid Mater
The Pia Mater Bone is situated over the meninges followed by periosteum and skin

4 Dura Mater Outermost, toughest, and most fibrous of the three membranes Covers the brain and spinal cord Responsible for keeping in the cerebrospinal fluid Has two layers The superficial: serves as the skull’s inner periosteum The deep layer called the meningeal layer which is the actual dura mater.

5 Dura Mater Cont. Opens at times into sinus cavities, which are located around the skull. Home to meningeal veins. It envelops arachnoid mater Carries blood from the brain to the heart.

6 The Arachnoid Mater Middle Layer of the meninges so it is between the dura mater and pia mater Envelops the brain Sends processes into the longitudinal and transverse fissure Surrounds nerves Forms tubular sheaths for nerves

7 Arachnoid Mater cont.

8 The Pia Mater Innermost layer of the meninges, closest to brain
Composed of fibrous tissue Covered on its outer surface by flat cells thought to be impermeable to fluid. Pierced by blood vessels that travel to brain and spinal cord Protects central nervous system by containing the cerebrospinal fluid

9 The Brain and its sections
The brain weighs three pounds Has a texture as jelly The main parts of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe Difference from left and right The Neuron forest

10 The Brains Parts

11 Brain and sections cont.
Cerebrum Largest part of the brain Associated with higher brain function such as thought and action For remembering, problem solving, thinking, feeling and movement Has outer layer called cortex, which is the brains wrinkly surface

12 Brain and sections cont.
Cerebellum Receives information from sensory systems, spinal cord, and and other parts of the brain Regulates motor movements Brainstem Regulates heart rate, breathing, sleeping, and eating. Leads to as the spinal cord

13 Brain and sections cont.
Frontal Lobe Front part of brain involved in reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving Parietal Lobe involved in movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli Occipital Lobe involved in visual processing

14 Brain and Sections cont.
Temporal Lobe involved with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech Left & Right of brain Left: controls movement on the body’s right side and has logic abilities Right: controls movement on the body’s left side and more for creativity Neuron Forest Where the work of the brain goes on in individual cells Signals that form memories and thoughts move through a nerve cell as an electrical charge.

15 Brain Development Ectoderm Neural Plate
Prosencephalon Mesencephalon Rhombencephalon Telencephalon Diencephalon Mesencephalon Metencephalon Myelencephalon Cerebral cortex Retina of the eye Midbrain basal nuclei Thalamus Superior colliculus Pons Medulla Hypothalamus inferior colliculus Cerebellum

16 Reflexes Reflexes are an automatic response to a stimulus
maintain homeostasis 2 types Spinal reflexes brain reflexes

17 Spinal Reflex response is mediated by neurons in the spinal cord
Action occurs without the awareness of brain ex. Kneejerk

18 Brain Reflexes Reflexes mediated by the brainstem
brain receives information and generates a response ex. movements of the eyes while reading this sentence

19 Neurons Nerve cell transmit information 3 types motor neuron
sensory neuron interneurons

20 Sensory Neurons Nerve cells that detect changes and send information
it may activate a motor neuron or another sensory one Afferent neurons

21 Motor Nerves Efferent They carry signals from the spinal cords to muscles They produce movements

22 interneurons They create neural circuits to enable the communication between motor neurons or sensory neurons and the central nervous system

23 Cranial Nerves There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves
They emerge directly from the brain and the brain stem. They exchange information between the brain and the body parts some bring information from sense organs and others control muscles


25 Olfactory nerve First cranial nerve A sensory nerve
It carries the sensory information for smell Capable of regeneration

26 Optic Nerve a sensory motor
Transmits visual information from the retina to the brain ex . brightness perception, contrast

27 Oculomotor Nerve It is a motor nerve
It controls most of the eye’s movements ex. maintaining the opening of an eye lid and pupil constriction

28 Trochlear nerve It is a motor nerve It innervates a single muscle
the superior oblique muscle of the eye It has the smallest number of axons

29 Trigeminal nerve it is a sensory and a motor nerve
sensation in the face chewing and biting divided in 3 branches ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular

30 Abducens nerve somatic efferent nerve motor nerve
controls the movement of the lateral rectus muscle of the eye

31 Facial nerve both motor and sensory nerves
It emerges from the brain stem Responsible for facial expressions it also supplies sensation information taste sensation

32 vestibulocochlear nerve
It is a sensory nerve it transmits sound and equilibrium information from inner ear to brain it consists of cochlear nerve and vestibular nerve

33 glossopharyngeal nerve
both sensory and motor nerve carries afferent sensory and efferent motor information several functions receives general sensory fibers receives special sensory fibers receives visceral sensory fibers

34 Vagus nerve both motor and sensory nerve
it supplies motor parasympathetic fibers to all organs except adrenal glands it controls few skeletal muscles

35 Accessory nerve motor nerve
provides information about the spinal cord, trapezius and other surrounding muscles. provides muscle movement of the shoulders and surrounding neck.

36 Hypoglossal nerve it is a motor nerve
innervates movement of the tongue controls movement required for speech, swallowing and food manipulation.

37 Spinal Nerves 31 pairs of spinal nerves
organized and divided into 4 regions Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sacral provide communication between body parts and cns they split into 3-4 branches Dorsal branch Ventral branch Visceral branch Meningeal branch 2 roots posterior anterior


39 Cervical nerves 8 pairs C1 - C8 emerge from corresponding vertebrae
they innervate the sternohyoid, sternothyroid and omohyoid muscles

40 Thoracic nerves 12 pairs T1 - T12
originate from corresponding vertebra they communicate with parts of chest or thorax and abdomen

41 Lumbar nerves 5 pairs L1 - L5 emerge from lumbar vertebrae
they supply many muscles ex. Gluteus medius muscle and gluteus minimus

42 Sacral nerves 5 pairs S1 - S5
start inside the vertebral column and exit the sacrum they supply the hip, thigh and foot

43 Works Cited Patricia Anne Kinser, “Brain Structures and Their Functions.” Serendip Studio. Paul Grobstein, 5 September Web. 21 April 2015. <> Alzheimer’s Association, “3 Main Parts of the Brain.” Alzheimer’s Association Web. 19 April 2015. <> “Arachnoid Trabeculae.” Encyclopedia Britannica. 9 September Web. 19 April, 2015. <> Michelle Watnick, ”Nervous System II.” Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. Fran Schreiber, Book. 18 April 2015.

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