2 Function of the BrainThe control network for the body’s functions and abilitiesIt is in charge of things your body needs to stay aliveTells your body what to do
3 Layers of the Meninges The Dura Mater The Arachnoid Mater The Pia MaterBone is situated over the meninges followed by periosteum and skin
4 Dura MaterOutermost, toughest, and most fibrous of the three membranesCovers the brain and spinal cordResponsible for keeping in the cerebrospinal fluidHas two layersThe superficial: serves as the skull’s inner periosteumThe deep layer called the meningeal layer which is the actual dura mater.
5 Dura Mater Cont.Opens at times into sinus cavities, which are located around the skull.Home to meningeal veins.It envelops arachnoid materCarries blood from the brain to the heart.
6 The Arachnoid MaterMiddle Layer of the meninges so it is between the dura mater and pia materEnvelops the brainSends processes into the longitudinal and transverse fissureSurrounds nervesForms tubular sheaths for nerves
8 The Pia Mater Innermost layer of the meninges, closest to brain Composed of fibrous tissueCovered on its outer surface by flat cells thought to be impermeable to fluid.Pierced by blood vessels that travel to brain and spinal cordProtects central nervous system by containing the cerebrospinal fluid
9 The Brain and its sections The brain weighs three poundsHas a texture as jellyThe main parts of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobeDifference from left and rightThe Neuron forest
11 Brain and sections cont. CerebrumLargest part of the brainAssociated with higher brain function such as thought and actionFor remembering, problem solving, thinking, feeling and movementHas outer layer called cortex, which is the brains wrinkly surface
12 Brain and sections cont. CerebellumReceives information from sensory systems, spinal cord, and and other parts of the brainRegulates motor movementsBrainstemRegulates heart rate, breathing, sleeping, and eating.Leads to as the spinal cord
13 Brain and sections cont. Frontal LobeFront part of braininvolved in reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solvingParietal Lobeinvolved in movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuliOccipital Lobeinvolved in visual processing
14 Brain and Sections cont. Temporal Lobeinvolved with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speechLeft & Right of brainLeft: controls movement on the body’s right side and has logic abilitiesRight: controls movement on the body’s left side and more for creativityNeuron ForestWhere the work of the brain goes on in individual cellsSignals that form memories and thoughts move througha nerve cell as an electrical charge.
15 Brain Development Ectoderm Neural Plate Prosencephalon Mesencephalon RhombencephalonTelencephalon Diencephalon Mesencephalon Metencephalon MyelencephalonCerebral cortex Retina of the eye Midbrainbasal nuclei Thalamus Superior colliculus Pons MedullaHypothalamus inferior colliculus Cerebellum
16 Reflexes Reflexes are an automatic response to a stimulus maintain homeostasis2 typesSpinal reflexesbrain reflexes
17 Spinal Reflex response is mediated by neurons in the spinal cord Action occurs without the awareness of brainex. Kneejerk
18 Brain Reflexes Reflexes mediated by the brainstem brain receives information and generates a responseex. movements of the eyes while reading this sentence
19 Neurons Nerve cell transmit information 3 types motor neuron sensory neuroninterneurons
20 Sensory Neurons Nerve cells that detect changes and send information it may activate a motor neuron or another sensory oneAfferent neurons
21 Motor NervesEfferentThey carry signals from the spinal cords to musclesThey produce movements
22 interneuronsThey create neural circuits to enable the communication between motor neurons or sensory neurons and the central nervous system
23 Cranial Nerves There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves They emerge directly from the brain and the brain stem.They exchange information between the brain and the body partssome bring information from sense organs and others control muscles
25 Olfactory nerve First cranial nerve A sensory nerve It carries the sensory information for smellCapable of regeneration
26 Optic Nerve a sensory motor Transmits visual information from the retina to the brainex . brightness perception, contrast
27 Oculomotor Nerve It is a motor nerve It controls most of the eye’s movementsex. maintaining the opening of an eye lid and pupil constriction
28 Trochlear nerve It is a motor nerve It innervates a single muscle the superior oblique muscle of the eyeIt has the smallest number of axons
29 Trigeminal nerve it is a sensory and a motor nerve sensation in the facechewing and bitingdivided in 3 branchesophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular
30 Abducens nerve somatic efferent nerve motor nerve controls the movement of the lateral rectus muscle of the eye
31 Facial nerve both motor and sensory nerves It emerges from the brain stemResponsible for facial expressionsit also supplies sensation informationtaste sensation
32 vestibulocochlear nerve It is a sensory nerveit transmits sound and equilibrium information from inner ear to brainit consists of cochlear nerve and vestibular nerve
33 glossopharyngeal nerve both sensory and motor nervecarries afferent sensory and efferent motor informationseveral functionsreceives general sensory fibersreceives special sensory fibersreceives visceral sensory fibers
34 Vagus nerve both motor and sensory nerve it supplies motor parasympathetic fibers to all organs except adrenal glandsit controls few skeletal muscles
35 Accessory nerve motor nerve provides information about the spinal cord, trapezius and other surrounding muscles.provides muscle movement of the shoulders and surrounding neck.
36 Hypoglossal nerve it is a motor nerve innervates movement of the tonguecontrols movement required for speech, swallowing and food manipulation.
37 Spinal Nerves 31 pairs of spinal nerves organized and divided into 4 regionsCervicalThoracicLumbarSacralprovide communication between body parts and cnsthey split into 3-4 branchesDorsal branchVentral branchVisceral branchMeningeal branch2 rootsposterioranterior
39 Cervical nerves 8 pairs C1 - C8 emerge from corresponding vertebrae they innervate the sternohyoid, sternothyroid and omohyoid muscles
40 Thoracic nerves 12 pairs T1 - T12 originate from corresponding vertebrathey communicate with parts of chest or thorax and abdomen
41 Lumbar nerves 5 pairs L1 - L5 emerge from lumbar vertebrae they supply many musclesex. Gluteus medius muscle and gluteus minimus
42 Sacral nerves 5 pairs S1 - S5 start inside the vertebral column and exit the sacrumthey supply the hip, thigh and foot
43 Works CitedPatricia Anne Kinser, “Brain Structures and Their Functions.” Serendip Studio. Paul Grobstein, 5 September Web. 21 April 2015.<www.serendip.bryanmawer.edu>Alzheimer’s Association, “3 Main Parts of the Brain.” Alzheimer’s Association Web. 19 April 2015.<www.alz.org/braintour>“Arachnoid Trabeculae.” Encyclopedia Britannica. 9 September Web. 19 April, 2015.<www.en.wikipedia.org/arachnoidtrabeculae>Michelle Watnick, ”Nervous System II.” Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. Fran Schreiber, Book. 18 April 2015.