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Which of the following is the result of aeolian deflation? a)desert pavement b)ventifact c)loess d)yardang e)dune.

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Presentation on theme: "Which of the following is the result of aeolian deflation? a)desert pavement b)ventifact c)loess d)yardang e)dune."— Presentation transcript:

1 Which of the following is the result of aeolian deflation? a)desert pavement b)ventifact c)loess d)yardang e)dune

2 Which of the following is the result of aeolian deflation? a)desert pavement b)ventifact c)loess d)yardang e)dune

3 The skipping and bouncing of particles transported by the wind is called _____. a)sedimentation b)compaction c)surface creep d)saltation e)infiltration

4 The skipping and bouncing of particles transported by the wind is called _____. a)sedimentation b)compaction c)surface creep d)saltation e)infiltration

5 a)underneath the dune. b)at the crest. c)on the leeward side. d)on the windward side. e)several feet in front of the windward side. The location of the slip face of a dune is best described as

6 a)underneath the dune. b)at the crest. c)on the leeward side. d)on the windward side. e)several feet in front of the windward side The location of the slip face of a dune is best described as

7 Choose the best description of a barchan dune. a)long, sinuous ridge-shaped dune aligned parallel with the wind b)pyramidal or star-shaped dune with three or more arms extending outward c)crescent-shaped dune with horns pointing downwind d)circular or elliptical mound with no slipface e)crescent-shaped dune with open end facing upwind

8 Choose the best description of a barchan dune. a)long, sinuous ridge-shaped dune aligned parallel with the wind b)pyramidal or star-shaped dune with three or more arms extending outward c)crescent-shaped dune with horns pointing downwind d)circular or elliptical mound with no slipface e)crescent-shaped dune with open end facing upwind

9 Choose the best description of a longitudinal dune. a)long, sinuous ridge-shaped dune aligned parallel with the wind b)pyramidal or star-shaped dune with three or more arms extending outward c)crescent-shaped dune with horns pointing downwind d)circular or elliptical mound with no slipface e)crescent-shaped dune with open end facing upwind

10 Choose the best description of a longitudinal dune. a)long, sinuous ridge-shaped dune aligned parallel with the wind b)pyramidal or star-shaped dune with three or more arms extending outward c)crescent-shaped dune with horns pointing downwind d)circular or elliptical mound with no slipface e)crescent-shaped dune with open end facing upwind

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13 Oceans

14 Ocean Topography

15 Physical Structure of the Ocean

16 Littoral Zone

17 Wave Formation

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19 Wavelength Distance from one wave crest to the next Wave height The distance between trough and crest Wave period The time taken for two crests to pass a given point (remains almost constant) = V * P The wavelength,, is the product of its velocity and period.

20 Wave Properties The energy source for both coastal erosion and sediment transport are the ocean waves generated by the frictional effect of the winds incident on the ocean surface (1) Kinetic Energy: The motion of the water within the wave. (2) Potential Energy: Due to the position of water above the wave trough. Wave energy increases with wind speed and fetch

21 Wave motion (a)Ocean depth > ½ wavelength - waves not affected by ocean floor (b) Ocean depth < ½ wavelength - wave height increases and wavelength decreases The wave becomes more peaked “Breakers” form Breaking of waves: conversion of potential to kinetic energy Work done on the shoreline

22 Transport of Sediments by Wave Action Rock particles are eroded from one area and deposited elsewhere. Wave refraction affects this process. Beach Drift: Swash and backwash rarely occur in exactly opposite directions Upward movement occurs at some oblique angle Backward movement occurs at right angles to the beach. This creates lateral movement of particles (beach drift)

23 Decrease in wavelength as waves approach a shoreline

24 Wave Refraction Straight shoreline -drag exerted by the ocean floor causes waves to break parallel with the shoreline. The direction of travel of a wave varies as it approaches an indented coast. Crests approaching the headlands experience the drag of the ocean floor first, which causes: 1.Increase in wave height 2.Decrease in wavelength 3.Decrease in velocity

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26 Longshore Current and Beach Drift

27 Longshore Currents

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29 Rip currents form when waves are pushed over sandbars. The weight of excess water near the shore can ‘rip’ an opening in the sandbar, causing water to rush seaward. Rip Currents Source: NOAA

30 Rip Current

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35 Tidal forces Tides enhanced during full Moon and new Moon Sun-Moon-Earth closely aligned

36 Influence of Perigee, Apogee, Perihelion and Aphelion on the Earth’s Tides Stronger for perigee and perihelion

37 Annapolis Tidal Power Generating Station

38 Hopewell Rocks, New Brunswick “flower pot rocks”

39 Coastal Processes and Landforms Erosional and depositional landforms of coastal areas are the result of the action of ocean waves. Erosional LandformsDepositional landforms Sea CliffsBeaches Wave-cut NotchesBarrier Spit CavesBaymouth Bar Sea stacksLagoon Sea archesTombolo

40 Erosional Coastal Landforms Along rugged, high-relief, tectonically-active coastlines Sea cliffs A tall, steep rock face, formed by the undercutting action of the sea Wave-cut notches A rock recess at the foot of a sea cliff where the energy of waves is concentrated Sea Caves Caves form in more erosive sediment when the rock does not fully collapse in a deeply-notched environment

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43 Wave-cut platform Horizontal benches in the tidal zone extending from the sea cliff out into the sea If the sea level relative to the land changes over time (becoming lower with respect to the land due to uplift), multiple wave cut platforms (terraces) result

44 Erosional Features

45 Depositional Coastal Features

46 Littoral Drift

47 Barrier Spit Material transported by littoral drift deposited along ridge, extending outward from a coast in an area with weak offshore currents If the spit grows to completely block an embayment, it is called a bay barrier or baymouth bar A lagoon is a body of water behind the barrier

48 Puget Sound, WA

49 Bay Barrier

50 Near Eureka, CA

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52 Coastal Straightening Figure 13.8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.Christopherson, Elemental Geosystems, Sixth Edition

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54 Frost Island, WA

55 A tombolo occurs when sediment deposits connect the shoreline with an offshore sea stack or island

56 Rebounding Coast isostatic rebound

57 Barrier Islands

58 Chandeleur Islands

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60 Coral Reefs Coral: Marine animal in symbiotic relationship with algae Saclike body called a polyp Biodiverse, but bleaching a problem due to pollution, sedimentation, warming, and variable salinity. Figure 13.17

61 Coral Reef Formation and Forms

62 Coral Reef Formations

63 Coastal Salt Marsh

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65 Mangroves

66 Which of the following is NOT a coastal feature that is the direct result of the erosion of waves? a)wave-cut platform b)notched cliff c)barrier spit d)sea arch e)sea cave

67 Which of the following is NOT a coastal feature that is the direct result of the erosion of waves? a)wave-cut platform b)notched cliff c)barrier spit d)sea arch e)sea cave

68 Which of the following is NOT a depositional coastal feature? a)bay barrier b)beach c)barrier spit d)sea stack e)tombolo

69 Which of the following is NOT a depositional coastal feature? a)bay barrier b)beach c)barrier spit d)sea stack e)tombolo

70 Which of the following statements about the chemical composition of seawater is false? a)Seawater that is less saline than average is called brackish. b)Seawater that is more saline than average is called brine. c)Seawater in equatorial regions is slightly higher in salinity than average. d)Seawater is generally lower in salinity near continents. e)The average salinity is 35 parts per thousand.

71 Which of the following statements about the chemical composition of seawater is false? a)Seawater that is less saline than average is called brackish. b)Seawater that is more saline than average is called brine. c)Seawater in equatorial regions is slightly higher in salinity than average. d)Seawater is generally lower in salinity near continents. e)The average salinity is 35 parts per thousand.

72 The physical structure of the ocean includes a)a warm surface zone that extends to a depth of 2.5 kilometers. b)a frozen zone that lies about 5 kilometers deep in tropical regions. c)a frozen zone that may be only 0.5 kilometers deep in polar regions. d)a zone of mixed water temperatures that extends from the surface to the ocean floor. e)a thermocline transition zone, which is a region of decreasing temperature gradient.

73 The physical structure of the ocean includes a)a warm surface zone that extends to a depth of 2.5 kilometers. b)a frozen zone that lies about 5 kilometers deep in tropical regions. c)a frozen zone that may be only 0.5 kilometers deep in polar regions. d)a zone of mixed water temperatures that extends from the surface to the ocean floor. e)a thermocline transition zone, which is a region of decreasing temperature gradient.

74 In the littoral zone, the beach (shore) zone includes a)the offshore zone. b)cliffs. c)the backshore. d)offshore bars. e)the foreshore.

75 In the littoral zone, the beach (shore) zone includes a)the offshore zone. b)cliffs. c)the backshore. d)offshore bars. e)the foreshore.

76 Spring tides occur under which of the following circumstances? a)Meltwater from snowfields lowers the salinity in estuaries. b)All latitudes experience equal day and night. c)The Sun, Moon, and Earth are positioned in a straight line. d)The Sun’s rays are directly overhead at the equator. e)The Moon is positioned 90° to Earth and the Sun.

77 Spring tides occur under which of the following circumstances? a)Meltwater from snowfields lowers the salinity in estuaries. b)All latitudes experience equal day and night. c)The Sun, Moon, and Earth are positioned in a straight line. d)The Sun’s rays are directly overhead at the equator. e)The Moon is positioned 90° to Earth and the Sun.

78 Which is responsible for concentrating wave action onto headlands? a)wave refraction b)neap tides c)rip currents d)longshore currents e)waves of transition

79 Which is responsible for concentrating wave action onto headlands? a)wave refraction b)neap tides c)rip currents d)longshore currents e)waves of transition

80 The net transport of water parallel to the shoreline that is the result of breakers striking at an angle to the beach is(are) _____. a)longshore current b)deflation c)spring tides d)waves of translation e)interference

81 The net transport of water parallel to the shoreline that is the result of breakers striking at an angle to the beach is(are) _____. a)longshore current b)deflation c)spring tides d)waves of translation e)interference

82 Coral bleaching may be the result of _____. a)the warming of sea-surface temperatures b)dumping of chemicals and pollutants on fringing reefs c)increased human recreation in coral reef areas d)the erosive action of tsunamis e)increased wave action on fringing reefs

83 Coral bleaching may be the result of _____. a)the warming of sea-surface temperatures b)dumping of chemicals and pollutants on fringing reefs c)increased human recreation in coral reef areas d)the erosive action of tsunamis e)increased wave action on fringing reefs

84 Which of the following tend to form along coastlines north of 30º N latitude in the Northern Hemisphere? a)mangrove swamps b)salt marshes c)coral reefs d)tombolos e)atolls

85 Which of the following tend to form along coastlines north of 30º N latitude in the Northern Hemisphere? a)mangrove swamps b)salt marshes c)coral reefs d)tombolos e)atolls


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