Grammar Parts of Speech and Sentence Construction Part 2
In the first presentation we learned about noun, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. This one will talk about prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections. Prepositions are not essential to rudimentary communication. As we said before, you can talk to people using nouns and verbs if you plan to have no sophistication at all in your conversation. But without prepositions we would have tremendous limitations in understanding. (Four prepositional phrases were used in this paragraph.)
Conjunctions are grammatical “time-savers.” Instead of saying, “I am leaving for school. My brother is also leaving for school,” you can say, “My brother and I are leaving for school.” The tiny conjunction “and” enables you to do this. Coordinating—for and nor but or yet so Subordinating—after while until whether although if unless when whenever because before since Correlative—not only...but also; both...and; either...or; neither...nor; whether...or;
Interjections allow us to express our strong feelings, whatever those feelings may be. When you hit your thumb with a hammer, the word that comes out of your mouth is an interjection. !*&!)!**%**! What are some examples of interjections that are suitable for printing on this page?
Over the river and through the woods to grandmother’s house we go. This sentence from a childhood song is made up of a conjunction, a subject (we), a verb (go), and three prepositional phrases. Prepositions are usually just one word. But prepositions are almost always followed by nouns. A noun that follows a preposition is the object of the preposition.
What do these words have to do with the above box? Some common prepositions: outto underneath on up during in beyond above behind intothrough below beneath off upon below under over down towardacross within without
Prepositions, many times, give or show a direction. Whatever that can be done with this box is a preposition. on under beneath below underneath beside over above within in through upon beyond There are other prepositions, but this illustration covers many of them. with without
Find the prepositional phrases in the selection below. Identify the preposition first. Then identify the object of the preposition. Have you been paying attention to the presidential campaign? We have two candidates running for the office. One of them will be the winner. The two major candidates have quite a bit in common. Both are the sons of powerful politicians. George Bush’s father is a former President. Al Gore’s father was a senator from Tennessee. Both were educated in Ivy League schools. Both are wealthy men. Both have strong ties to their families. They even have similar views on several issues. Which candidate do you like better? Do you know the difference between a Democrat and a Republican?
Have you been paying attention to the presidential campaign? We have two candidates running for the office. One of them will be the winner. The two major candidates have quite a bit in common. Both are the sons of powerful politicians. George Bush’s father is a former President. Al Gore’s father was a senator from Tennessee. Both were educated in Ivy League schools. Both are wealthy men. Both have strong ties to their families. They even have similar views on several issues. Which candidate do you like better? Do you know the difference between a Democrat and a Republican? Did you find all of the prepositions? Did you identify the objects?
Prepositional Phrases as Adjective Phrases and Adverb Phrases “The boy behind me is so cute!” “Behind me” is a prepositional phrase, but what does it modify? Does it tell which boy? Or does it tell where the boy sits? This prepositional phrase tells us which boy—the “behind me” boy and modifies the noun “boy.” What is the object of the preposition? “He ran behind the car and jumped into his truck.” Behind the car” is also a prepositional phrase. What does this phrase modify—the pronoun “he” or the verb “ran?” Does it tell which one, what kind, or how many? If it does it is an adjective phrase. Does it tell how, where, when or to what extent? If it does, it is an adverb phrase. Is there another prepositional phrase in this sentence? Find it—tell what the object is and tell whether it is an adjective phrase or an adverb phrase.
Phrases and Clauses What is the difference between a phrase and a clause? A clause has both a subject and a verb. A phrase is a group of related words. Down the street and around the corner Phrase (actually two phrases) After he locked the building for the night Dependent clause—doesn’t make sense by itself—subject? verb? Jacob left his job for a better opportunity. Independent clause—does make sense by itself—subject? verb?