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The Interwar Years: the Challenge of Dictators and Depression

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1 The Interwar Years: the Challenge of Dictators and Depression
4/15/2017 The Interwar Years: the Challenge of Dictators and Depression

2 Treaty of Versailles, 1919 27 countries sent representatives to Paris to “transform Europe” France wanted to eliminate Germany as a military threat 16.5% of all Frenchmen mobilized during the war France was a nation of disabled vets, widows fatherless children Northeast was in ruins; factories & railroads were destroyed Clemenceau demanded Germany’s military arsenal be reduced and French troops occupy the Rhineland



5 Treaty of Versailles Great Britain believed it was in Europe’s best interest to restore the German Republic to reasonable economic strength Italy assumed it would receive the territories promised by the Allies in 1915 Port of Trieste & South Tyrol; Istria & Dalmatia Wilson, however, opposed Istria, North Dalmatia and the Adriatic port of Rijeka because they did not have an Italian population Italian nationalists saw the treaty as a “mutilated peace”

6 14 Points Wilson promoted his “14 Points”
Self-determination – the principle that ethnicity should determine national boundaries Open treaties – not secret alliances League of Nations – arbitrate future international disputes; collective security against any power threatening peace

7 Treaty of Versailles War Guilt Clause – Article 231 – Germany accepted full responsibility for “loss & damage” Alsace-Lorraine returned to France Permanent demilitarization of the German left bank France would control the rich coal & iron mines of the Saar region for 15 years Poland became independent for the first time since 1795 The “Polish Corridor” divided East Prussia German army reduced to 100,000; navy reduced to 12 ships and no u-boats; no air force at all $132 billion gold marks in reparations to the Allies Payment in the form of warships & ¼ of all coal extractions

8 Territorial Changes Bulgaria lost land to both Greece & Romania
A-H was reduced to the small country of Austria Hungary lost 2/3 of its territory & 3/5 of its population Turkish Ottoman Empire was dismantled The Kurds, an ethnic minority within Turkey & Iraq, were without an independent state

9 National and Ethnic Challenges
Treaty created “successor” states out of A-H Principle of nationalism – ethnicity should be the chief determinant of national boundaries Finland gained independence from Sweden Latvia, Lithuania & Estonia became independent of the Soviet Union Yugoslavia was created in the Balkans Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, B-H, Kosovo Poland & Czechoslovakia became independent countries These changes reversed the trend of the past 200 years of absolutist monarchs creating empires & large states

10 Europe 1919 The Allies had the strategic containment of communism in mind when they set up “buffer states” Czechoslovakia, Romania & Yugoslavia formed the Little Entente to protect against Soviet aggression

11 Colonial Questions Peace treaties did not acknowledge rights of people in colonies Irish, Persians, Jews, Arabs, Africans, Indians & Women all showed up hoping to be heard “Wild men screaming through the keyhole” was how Lloyd George acknowledged them British refused to accept a plan that the League of Nations arbitrate colonial issues They also refused to consider the right to self- determination

12 Colonies 1931 – “British Commonwealth” was created – the Dominions (Canada, South Africa, Australia & New Zealand) would refused independence but remain united by common allegiance to the crown Germany’s colonies were put into a “mandate system” – under the authority of the League of Nations but administered by the Allies Britain acquired Togoland & Cameroon – 1 million square miles

13 League of Nations Mandates in Africa

14 Middle East Allies promised the Arabs the creation of an independent Arab state Great Britain & France had already decided to divide the Middle East into two spheres of influence 1917 – Balfour Declaration promised the Jews a “national home” in Palestine

15 The Middle East in 1914

16 Hussein-McMahon Letters: 1915-16 Hussein ibn Ali, Sharif of Mecca
....Britain is prepared to recognize and uphold the independence of the Arabs in all regions lying within the frontiers proposed by the Sharif of Mecca.... Hussein ibn Ali, Sharif of Mecca

17 Sykes-Picot Agreement: 1916

18 Balfour Declaration: 1917 Foreign Office November 2nd, 1917
Dear Lord Rothschild. I have much pleasure to convey to you, on behalf of His Majesty’s Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations {hopes} which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet. “His Majesty’s Government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate {assist} the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.” I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation. Yours sincerely, ARTHUR JAMES BALFOUR British Foreign Secretary

19 The British Mandate in Palestine:
July, 1922

20 League of Nations Mandates in the Middle East

21 Ireland 1918 – Irish voters elected a majority of members of Sinn Fein (“We Ourselves”) to the House of Commons Declared Ireland a republic 1920 – Parliament passed the Government of Ireland Act dividing Ireland into 2 districts Catholic South = Republic Protestant North = British Irish nationalists wanted all of Ireland

22 Irish War of Independence 1919-1921
50,000 British soldiers & 10,000 “black and tans” (police force) kept to maintain peace The Irish Republican Army (IRA) ambushed the British police, killing 1,000+ in guerilla style warfare

23 India Growing Indian independence movement
1919 – protests in Punjab against the Rowland Acts which allowed Britain to forgo juries in political trials British responded by massacring 400 Indian civilians

24 Economic & Social Instability

25 Europe in 1919

26 Economic Turmoil European countries borrowed huge amounts of money to pay for the war Immediately after, prices were 3 times higher in Britain than before the war 5x higher in Germany & 14,000x higher in Austria! The gap between workers & the wealthy increased as large-industry businessmen (steel & arms producers) made huge war profits

27 Welfare State in Britain
British Labour Party closely allied with trade unions emerged as the second largest party in GB after the war Emergence of a welfare state reflected the pressure of the parties of the left & the trade unions Communists demanded revolution Socialists & union members demanded protection for workers Town Planning Act of 1919 – provided town councils with subsidies to encourage the construction of affordable row houses Eliminated slum over-crowding Provided working class families with centralized heating & bathrooms Expanded unemployment coverage to most industrial workers & granted pensions to war widows & orphans

28 Town Planning Act Dartford

29 Politics Nowhere in Europe was concentration of wealth so marked as in GB 1% of population owned 2/3 of the wealth Education, occupation, dress, accent, newspaper & leisure activities all revealed social class Britain’s Conservative Party won elections in December 1918 With economic difficulties, the first Labour Party government was installed in 1924 under James Ramsay MacDonald The fear of communism doomed the new government

30 Labour Tensions 1926 – tensions between industrialists & workers came to the fore Mines employed over 1 million workers, more than any other industry Mining companies reduced wages & lengthened the day May 1926 – majority of unionized workers in Britain went out in solidarity Most workers went back to work after 2 weeks but the miners remained on strike for 7 months

31 Ramsay MacDonald: 1924, 1929 Labour Party

32 Stanley Baldwin Conservative Party

33 1926 General Strike Trades Disputes Act (1927):
All general or sympathy strikes were illegal. It forbade unions from raising money for political purposes.

34 France

35 Raymond Poincare He sent French troops into the Ruhr in 1923.
Pushed for large-scale infrastructure reconstruction programs [counting on German reparations to pay for them]. After : New taxes on consumption & tightened tax collections. Drastic decline in govt. spending that stabilized the franc [the threat of runaway inflation was avoided!] The Chamber of Deputies increasingly became a debating society incapable of responding effectively to domestic & international crises

36 Edouard Herriot & the French Socialists
Progressive social reform. Spoke for the lower classes, small businessmen, and farmers. Committed to private enterprise and private property. Fervently anti-clerical.

37 Germany

38 From the German Point of View
 Lost—but not forgotten country. Into the heart You are to dig yourself these words as into stone: Which we have lost may not be truly lost!

39 Maimed German WW I Veteran

40 The “Stabbed-in-the-Back” Theory
Disgruntled German WWI veterans

41 Economic Turmoil Outflow of reparations in gold fueled inflation
Government expenses outweighed income, exports declined, prices rose faster than in other countries, destabilizing the new government The Allies were relying on those payments in order to pay their growing debts and not raise taxes Reparations did NOT ruin the German economy, though, because they paid only a small portion France, however, wanted the League of Nations to enforce the treaty & make Germany pay

42 The German Mark

43 German “Revolutions” [1918]

44 The German Mark

45 Political Instability
The Weimar Republic gave the president considerable powers 7 year term Ability to dissolve the Reichstag & call new elections Ability to suspend the constitution in order to restore order & rule by decree, if necessary Immediately there were challengers from both the right & left Left – Bavaria declared a social republic Right – right-wing conservatives seized control of the Bavarian government Kapp Putsch failed when Berlin army units wavered As economic and political instability continued, violence rose

46 Friedrich Ebert: First President of the Weimar Republic

47 Weimar Republic Foreign Minister Walther Rathenau ( ) tried to renegotiate the reparations; wanted to send goods rather than money to stop inflation Signed the Rapallo Treaty with U.S.S.R – Germany would send technical assistance to the Soviets who would pay them – All reparations between the two were cancelled • Rathenau was murdered

48 Weimar The German mark plunged dramatically
Government announced they could not make war reparations but would continue payments of coal & other natural resources France refused the moratorium so Germany called on workers in the Ruhr Valley to stop working January 11, 1923 – French & Belgium troops occupied the Ruhr

49 The French in the Ruhr: 1923

50 The French Occupation of the Ruhr

51 Ruhr Valley With the French troops in the Ruhr, the German government simply printed more money Inflation spiraled out of control Wiped out savings Crippled those on fixed incomes War bonds became worthless & those who bought them blamed the government Salaries couldn’t keep pace with prices Food shortages at stores were rampant Under these conditions, the German Communist Party gained many members

52 Some Stability Returns
August A new foreign minister, Gustav Stresemann convinced workers in Ruhr to go back to work Stopped printing government money Came up with new trillion mark currency France & Belgium ended their 9 month occupation

53 The Characteristics of Fascism

54 1. Ideology A form of extreme right-wing ideology.
It celebrates the nation or the race as an organic community transcending all other loyalties. Powerful and continuing nationalism. Constant use of patriotic mottos, slogans, symbols, songs, etc. Flags are seen everywhere.

55 2. Subordination to the State
Fascism seeks forcibly to subordinate ALL aspects of society to its vision of organic community [usually through a totalitarian state]. It uses organized violence to suppress opposition. Glorification of force. Accepts the tenets of Social Darwinism. Is anti-democratic.

56 3. Cult of State Worship The individual had no significance except as a member of the state. The fascists were taught: Credere! [to believe] Obbedire! [to obey] Combattere! [to fight]

57 4. The Myth of Rebirth Emphasis on a national or racial rebirth after a period of decline or destruction. Calls for a “spiritual revolution” against signs of moral decay [such as individualism and materialism]. Seeks to purge “alien” forces and groups that threaten the organic community.

58 5. Militarism

59 6. Rampant Sexism Almost exclusively male-dominated.
Traditional gender roles are made more rigid. Divorce, abortion & homosexuality are suppressed. The state is represented as the ultimate guardian of the family institution.

60 7. Identification of Enemies or Scapegoats as a Unifying Cause
The people are rallied into a unifying patriotic frenzy over the need to eliminate a perceived common threat or foe. This foe could be racial, ethnic, a religious minority, liberals, communists, etc.

61 8. Disdain for the Recognition of Human Rights
Because of the fear of enemies and the need for security, the people are persuaded that human rights can be ignored out of “need.” People look the other way or even approve of torture, summary executions, long incarcerations of prisoners, assassinations, etc.

62 Jews Are the Enemy!

63 9. Religion & Government Are Intertwined
Fascist governments tend to use the most common religion in the nation as a tool to manipulate public opinion. They meld religious rhetoric, symbolism, mythology, etc., into their policies [appears to give a religious imprimatur to government policies!]

64 10. Disdain for Intellectuals & for the Arts
Open hostility to higher education and academia is promoted. Professors and other academics are censored or arrested. Free expression in the arts and letters is openly attacked.

65 11. Rampant Cronyism & Corruption
Fascist regimes are almost always governed by groups of friends and associates who appoint each to government positions. This group uses governmental power and authority to protect their friends from accountability. National resources and even treasures can be appropriated or even outright stolen by government leaders.

66 12. Fraudulent Elections Sometimes elections are a complete sham.
Other times, elections are manipulated by smear campaigns against or even assassination of opposition candidates. The use of legislation to control who can vote.

67 13. Controlled Mass Media

68 14. Labor Power is Suppressed; Corporate Power is Protected
Because the organizing power of labor is the only real threat to a fascist government, labor unions are suppressed or independent unions are eliminated. The industrial and business aristocracy of a fascist state often are the ones who put the government leaders into power. This creates a mutually beneficial business/government relationship and power elite!

69 The Rise of Mussolini

70 Immediate Post-WW I Italy
Fascism, to some extent, was a product of a general feeling of anxiety and fear among the middle class of post-war Italy: Fears regarding the survival of capitalism. Economic depression. The rise of a militant left. A feeling of national shame and humiliation at Italy’s poor treatment by the other Entente leaders after World War I [especially at Versailles].

71 Immediate Post-WW I Italy
In 1920 the Italian Socialist Party organized militant strikes in Turin and other northern Italian industrial cities. Economic chaos in the north could spread to the rest of Italy! Hundreds of new fascist groups developed throughout Italy in response  “Black Shirts” [paramilitary squadriste] violently attacked the Socialists.

72 Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) Originally a Marxist.
By 1909 he was convinced that a national rather than an international revolution was necessary. Edited the Italian Socialist Party newspaper. Avanti! [Forward!].

73 Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) He became an interventionist.
Founded the newspaper Il Popolo d’Italia [The People of Italy] to encourage Italy to join the war.

74 Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) His editorial positions:
The war was a turning point for Italy. The returning combat soldiers would form a new elite and bring about a new type of state. This new elite would transform Italian politics and society!

75 Mussolini Comes to Power
1921 election  Fascists included in the political coalition bloc of P. M. Giovanni Giolitti’s government [they win 35 seats]. October, 1922  Mussolini threatened a coup d’etat. “March on Rome”  25,000 Black Shirts staged demonstrations throughout the capital.

76 Mussolini Forms a Government
King Victor Emmanuel III refused to sign a law giving the Italian military the ability to quell the chaos and arrest the Fascists. He invited Mussolini to join a coalition government with Giolitti. 1925  Mussolini seized dictatorial powers during a political crisis [Black Shirts murdered one of Mussolini’s chief Socialist critics, Giacomo Matteotti].

77 The Fascists Consolidate Power (1925-1931)
New laws passed to create the legal basis for Italy’s official transformation into a single-party state: Independent political parties & trade unions were abolished. Freedom of the press was curbed. Special courts created to persecute any political opposition. National police force created [with a secret police component].

78 State “Corporatism” 1926  The National Council of Corporations created. Guilds of employers and employees established to manage the 22 sectors of the economy. Supported by small capitalists, low-level bureaucrats, and the middle class They all felt threatened by the rise of Socialist power! The goal  harmonize the interests of workers, managers and the state by abolishing class warfare. The reality  This system retarded technological progress and destroyed workers’ rights.

79 The Lateran Accords (1929) This settled a long-running dispute over the Catholic Church’s role in Italian politics  this was the 1st time in Italian history that the Church and the government agreed on their respective roles! Terms: The Papacy was granted temporal sovereignty over Vatican City. The Papacy was guaranteed the free exercise of Roman Catholicism as the sole state religion throughout Italy. The Papacy accepted Italian sovereignty over the former Papal States.

80 The Lateran Treaty

81 Italian Fascist Propaganda

82 The Fascists encouraged the development of large families.
The Fascist Family The Fascists encouraged the development of large families.

83 Education The first sentence pronounced by children at school was Let us salute the flag in the Roman fashion; hail to Italy; hail to Mussolini. Textbooks emphasized: The glorious pat of the ancient Romans. The limitations imposed upon the present inhabitants by geography and the West. The imperial destiny that awaited Italy’s future development.

84 Emphasis on Physical Fitness

85 Anti-Semitism 50,000 Jews lived in Italy in the 1930s.
Mussolini did NOT implement an extermination program in Italy. 75% of Italian Jews survived World War II. 8,000 died in German extermination camps. 1938 anti-Semitic laws passed Manifesto degli Scienziati Razzisti [The Manifesto of the Racist Scientists]. Excluded foreign Jews [most of them were sent to German death camps]. Forbade all Jews from teaching. Excluded Jews from serving in the government or in the military.

86 Gli Ebrei in Italia (1937) Provided the intellectual premise for the 1938 racial laws. Attacked Jews for: Their alleged Zionist sympathies. Their championing of degenerate avante-garde cultural expressions. For their doubtful loyalty to the Fascist regime and its imperial claims.

87 Mussolini Was Hitler’s Role Model

88 4/15/2017 Postwar Economic Woes The war had damaged the economies of Europe’s old states The loss of so many people was also a loss of producers and consumers Every country had war debts, and no way to repay it Losers also had to pay reparations Industrial infrastructure had been destroyed The new states had nothing to begin with New borders separated factories from the resources they used Railway systems were now split between multiple nations Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

89 4/15/2017 War Communism Leon Trotsky (1879–1940) organized the Red Army to suppress both internal and foreign opposition White Russian opposition could not get properly organized The nation was run by Lenin from the top, undemocratically The government ran the banks, the transport system and heavy industry All opposition was repressed War Communism generated opposition Peasants resisted the requisition of grain Strikes in 1920 and 1921 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

90 The New Economic Plan (NEP)
4/15/2017 The New Economic Plan (NEP) Outlined by Lenin in March 1921 Private industry would be tolerated except in: Banking Heavy Industry Transportation International Commerce Peasant farming for profit was legalized The countryside stabilized Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

91 The Stalin/Trotsky Rivalry
4/15/2017 The Stalin/Trotsky Rivalry After Lenin’s stroke in 1922 and his subsequent death in 1924, a power vacuum was left Two factions emerged Trotsky Faction Joseph Stalin ( ), general secretary of the party, Faction Lenin had criticized both before his death, but especially Stalin Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

92 Russia: Rapid Industrialization
4/15/2017 Russia: Rapid Industrialization Joseph Stalin abandons Lenin’s New Economic Policy (NEP) Series of Five-Year Plans would rapidly increase government run heavy industries The State Planning Commission or Gosplan oversaw every aspect the economy Economy grows 400% between 1928 and 1940, but at the cost of deplorable human conditions for the workers Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

93 4/15/2017 The Purges Stalin, starting in 1933, gets rid of his enemies and opponents, both real and imagined, in the Great Purges The assassination of party chief Sergei Kirov leads to the first purges Millions of people are either executed or sent to labor camps Communist Party moves away from the philosophies of Lenin and other early Communist leaders Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

94 4/15/2017 Weimar Germany The Constitution, while Liberal, was also flawed, as it allowed small parties to gain seats easily The president was permitted to rule by decree in an emergency, permitting presidential dictatorship The republic lacked popular support It was viewed as the government with the humiliation of the Versailles treaty There was massive inflation, due to the reparations imposed by the allies

95 Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) Born in Braunau, Austria
Corporal in the army; injured in the leg (1916) and victim of gas attack (1918) After the war, he believed Germany had been “stabbed in the back” by Jews & Marxists His racist ideas were based on the belief that Germans were “Aryans,” descended from a superior Caucasian people

96 German Workers Party Hitler joined the German Workers’ Party
Soon he rose to its head & renamed it the National Socialist German Workers’ Party or Nazi Party He became addressed as “Führer” (“Leader”) He formed a paramilitary group, the “storm troopers” (S.A.) led by Ernst Rohm ( ) Offered a violent outlet for frustrated war vets

97 Beer Hall Putsch Hitler appeared to be a man of action – ready to lead Germany November 9, 1923 – Hitler attempted to seize power in Bavaria and then march to Berlin He was arrested and sentenced to 5 years (by a liberal judge!) Served 1 year in jail Though it failed, and Hitler was imprisoned, it made him a hero to many Germans. Nazism was characterized by extreme nationalism, anti-Communism and anti-Semitism

98 Mein Kampf Hitler wrote Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”) while in prison
Germany would rearm & conquer “living space” at the expense of the “inferior Slavic” peoples of the south and east Many Germans came to believe that victory had been stolen from them Appealed to middle class Germans 1928 – Nazis won less than 3% of the vote

99 Germany: Depression and the Rise of the Nazis
4/15/2017 Germany: Depression and the Rise of the Nazis Unemployment reaches six million in 1932 Parliamentary deadlock between Social Democrats and conservatives leads to the uprising of extreme political parties (Communists and Nazis)

100 Dawes Plan Charles G. Dawes, an American banker proposed a plan for instituting annual payments of reparations on a fixed scale He also recommended the reorganization of the German State Bank and increased foreign loans Opponents complained the Dawes Plan did not reduce the reparations total and foreigners would have control over the German economy The Dawes Plan was initially a great success The currency was stabilized and inflation was brought under control Large loans were raised in the United States and this investment resulted in a fall in unemployment Germany was able to meet her obligations under the Treaty of Versailles for the next five years.



103 Treaty of Locarno Series of treaties to promote the security of western Europe The first of the Locarno treaties guaranteed the common boundaries of France, Germany, and Belgium The Rhineland, an area covering parts of Belgium, France, and Germany, was established as a neutral zone France signed security treaties with Poland and Czechoslovakia, but they did not address Germany's eastern borders There were, however, agreements providing for the arbitration of disputes between Germany and its Belgian, French, Czech, and Polish neighbors The treaties were to operate within the framework of the League of Nations, which Germany joined in 1926.


105 Great Depression

106 October 1929 The American stock market crashed sending the world into a global economic depression American & British investors with assets in Germany now pulled their money out German gold deposits were depleted as banks owed more to creditors than they had in assets Unemployment reached unprecedented levels Manufacturing & agricultural prices dropped because of a lack of demand


108 Great Depression Inflation frightened most governments who stayed away from limited financial or fiscal expansion Banks called in debts causing other banks to collapse & fall Moratorium on all reparations & war debt until August 1931 Britain & US went off the gold standard – no longer exchanged gold for pounds/dollars This discouraged business & international trade declined


110 Great Britain Neville chamberlain ( ) and the Conservative Party won Parliamentary elections Imposed higher tariffs = limited consumer spending Devalued their own currency Cut government spending, including unemployment benefits!

111 John Maynard Keynes Insisted on the opposite
Recommended deficit spending Wanted government to increase expenditures, especially on public works to stimulate consumer spending Argued that high tariffs, devaluing the currency, reducing unemployment benefits were counterproductive

112 Gradual Recovery – Britain gradually increased benefits & restored government spending Real wages slowly rose Industry was aided by the subsidizing of public construction projects & agricultural quotas As industry and agriculture recovered, so did consumer spending By comparison, the US was hit the hardest & slowest to recover

113 Growth of Fascists The Great Depression was a breeding ground of for new fascist members Development of mass political movement that rejected (and blamed) parliamentary rule for the failures of their states in post- war years

114 4/15/2017 Hitler Comes to Power President von Hindenburg – after eight months of trying to appease the Nazis without putting Adolf Hitler in power, in January 1933, he names Hitler chancellor Von Hindenburg appointed several Conservatives to the cabinet, including Franz von Papen, as a way to attempt to control Hitler Papen stated that he could control Hitler Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

115 How Hitler Came to Power
4/15/2017 How Hitler Came to Power Blunders of conservative German politicians who hated the Weimer Republic put Hitler in charge Hitler mastered techniques of mass politics and propaganda Support came not just from lower classes, but war veterans, farmers and the young (particularly hurt by the depression) Technically, Hitler came to power through legal means Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

116 Hitler’s Consolidation of Power
4/15/2017 Hitler’s Consolidation of Power Reichstag Fire – mentally ill communist burns down Reichstag; as a result Hitler issues Article 48 – emergency decree suspending civil liberties and arresting suspected Communists The Enabling Act – permitted Hitler to rule by decree, giving him unlimited power 1933 – National Socialists the only legal party in Germany Internal Nazi Party Purges – Hitler orders German army to kill SA or storm troopers including leader Ernst Roehm because they were becoming too popular Hindenburg dies – Hitler names himself chancellor and president, making him sole ruler of Germany and Nazi Party Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

117 4/15/2017 The Reichstag fire in 1933 provided Hitler with an excuse to consolidate his power. Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved. 117

118 Anti-Semitism and the Police State
4/15/2017 SS organization – commanded by Heinrich Himmler, became chief vehicle of police surveillance and carried out the purges Nuremberg Laws – German Jews robbed of citizenship, prohibited from marrying non-Jews, and publicly humiliated Kristallnacht – Jews forbidden to be in business, thousands of Jewish stores and synagogues destroyed and Jews forced to pay for the clean-up

119 Nazi Economic Policy 4/15/2017 Hitler’s oppressive regime received support because he swiftly ended the Depression in Germany Massive public works programs Renunciation of the Treaty of Versailles leads Hitler to appoint Hermann Goring to undertake a four-year plan to prepare the army and economy for war Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

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