Presentation on theme: "Bell Work: Answer the questions below after the HWQ *What does the snake represent? *What does the rabbit represent? *What is the snake going to do to."— Presentation transcript:
Bell Work: Answer the questions below after the HWQ *What does the snake represent? *What does the rabbit represent? *What is the snake going to do to the rabbit? *Why?
The Futile Search for Stability Chapter 17 Section 1
Objective Explain how peace was temporary after WWI –League of Nations –Inflation in Germany –Failed attempts for peace
Problem with Peace: League of Nations Wilson knew problems would arise –hoped League of Nations would help settle problems Problem with the plan –US did not join to avoid involvement in European affairs –Germany did not join –No real power
French Demands Treaty called for Reparations Determined Germany owes 132 billion German marks –$33 billion US First payment was in 1921 –2 nd payment never came –Germany could not pay more France is furious –Occupied Ruhr Valley Germany’s industrial and mining center collect by taking profits
Inflation in Germany Government adopted policy of passive resistance –Workers went on strike Government prints more money to pay workers –Caused an inflation –Mark becomes worthless 1914: 4.2 marks = $1 1923: 130 billion marks = $1 Intensified: 4.2 TRILLION marks = $1
Solution: Dawes Plan France and Germany want solution to the disaster In 8/1924 Dawes Plan is introduced 1. Reduced reparations 2. Coordinated Germany’s ability to pay with payments 3. US Granted $200 million loan for Germany recovery American investment begins in Europe Alleviated problems for 5 years, until WHEN?
Dawes Plan Flow Chart What would happen if one of the parts “fell” out of the flow?
Kellogg-Briand Pact Originally between France & the United states American Sec of State Kellogg Foreign minister Briand 63 nations signed Pledged to “renounce war as an instrument of national policy” –no consequences if they broke pact
Video Clip The People’s Century – –Lost Peace: 11 minutes (after 2 min of commercial) Answer the following while watching the clip: – –Describe how Europe was affected by WWI & the Treaty of Versailles. Changes, events, etc.
Describe how Europe was affected by WWI & the Treaty of Versailles Right at the end: People were happy/hopeful Generation was traumatized by the warfare/trenches Wilson’s hope / League of Nations Treaty of Versailles – Germans were in dismay Austria-Hungarian Empire is destroyed New nations were created – –Czech, Poland, Yugoslavia League of Nations meets’ – –US, Russia & Germany don’t attend Germany almost completely disarmed –Other countries fail to comply with disarmament Self-determination –Plebiscites (elections) are held Refugees –from land changing hands Germany angered –Land taken –Reparations –Inflation –unemployment –no pity from France/GB Anti-War ~ Literature & movies
Bell Work Pair share ideas from Video – –Describe how Europe was affected by WWI & the Treaty of Versailles. Changes, events, etc. – –Share 3 ideas with 3 different people Be ready to – –Share with the class – –Positive or negative??
Global Depression: Democracy is on the defensive
Objectives Explain the causes of the Global Depression Discuss the responses to the depression –Government responses –Explain Keynes’ theory
The Great Depression –Depression: A period characterized by low economic activity (production & spending) and rising unemployment
Causes of the Great Depression 1 st Factor - downturns in economies of individual nations 2 nd Factor - U.S. Stock Market Crash -European stability was due to US bank loans to Germany (see Dawes) -US stopped investing in Europe & other areas -Caused depression around the world
Global Depression: What is happening? The Great Depression had devastating effects in virtually every country, rich and poor. –Unemployment in the United States rose to 25%, some countries rose as high as 33%. –Massive inflation –Cities all around the world were hit hard, especially those dependent on industry. –Farming and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by approximately 60 percent
First response to the Depression Governments did not know how to react – –Lowered wages – –Decreased production – –Governments didn’t want to spend too much $ – –Decreased trade Made the depression worse. Why?
To Do: Depression Reading – in pairs –Read each section out loud or to yourselves –Write the main idea of each section in the right column Circle or star anything that you do not understand Finish for homework
Bell Work: Use your notes from the reading to create a Web (graphic organizer) for one of the following: –Fascist Dictatorship –Communist Dictatorship –Welfare Capitalism
Ultimate Responses Dictatorship –Germany, Italy, Japan & Central America Prices dropped Countries lost money –Social unrest = military dictators promising order For control Welfare Capitalism –Canada, GB, France & US –Government assumed responsibility not control Provided security against bankruptcy & unemployment
Keynes: Had a different idea John Maynard Keynes - British economist –depressions: Government must step in – increase spending – –Unemployment came from decline in demand – –Demand can be increased Put money back into the system – –If necessary: governments may have to go into deficit spending
To Do: Reading Totalitarianism –Read the first section: Totalitarianism –Fill in the Totalitarian Concept Map Homework: –Finish Concept map –Finish Reading Be able to answer questions in class tomorrow
Bell Work: Think Pair Share! Get together with a partner Get together with a partner –Share characteristics of Totalitarianism Use Concept map
Rise of Dictators Chapter 17 Section 2 Totalitarianism
Objectives Explain why many countries had adopted totalitarian dictatorial regimes – –Why did people accept it? Explain how those regimes aimed to control their citizens for state goals.
Rise of Dictators Current State in Europe –F–F–F–France and Great Britain were democratic –o–o–o–other states turned to totalitarian dictators Totalitarian Ideology – (ideas from concept map) –R–R–R–Rejects the existing society CCCCorrupt or immoral CCCCurrent gov’t is the cause of all the country’s problems Totalitarianism: –G–G–G–Government aims to control all aspects of the lives of citizens ppppolitical, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural
Totalitarian State: Characteristics Demand conformity Demand conformity –control citizens –use propaganda techniques Had single leader and single party Had single leader and single party Glorifies the state above the individual Glorifies the state above the individual –Individual was subordinate to the collective will No individual freedoms
Types of Totalitarianism Right-Wing Nazi / Fascist Nazi / Fascist –Hitler –Mussolini Middle Class seeking to maintain power Middle Class seeking to maintain power –Keep the class system Appeals to the elite class Appeals to the elite class Left-Wing Communist Communist –Mao Tse tung –Stalin Working class seeking equality Working class seeking equality –Eliminate the classes Appeals to the workers Appeals to the workers –Usually a revolution
Fascism in Italy Example of Totalitarianism Suffered economic problems after WWI Suffered economic problems after WWI –Strikes & protests became common –Created pathway for
Benito Mussolini - Il Duce The 1 st Fascist
Fascist Ideology – Emphasized Totalitarianism Fascist Ideology – Emphasized Totalitarianism –Subordination of the individual to the state –Control all aspects of society Even if violence is necessary So why follow him? So why follow him? –Nationalism We are the best, we deserve to rule –Need for a strong leader Your government is not working I can help you … Give me power Benito Mussolini - Il Duce The 1 st Fascist
To Do: Video Clip The People’s Century The People’s Century –Lost Peace: 10 minutes (more if needed) Answer the following while watching the clip: Answer the following while watching the clip: –What promises were made by Hitler & Mussolini? –What were the problems with the League of Nations? –What were the feelings in the US & Britain? –What was the reaction of France & GB when Hitler annexed Austria?
Answers What promises were made by Hitler? What promises were made by Hitler? –Remove burdens of the Treaty of Versailles –Promised work & bread for all, eliminate unemployment Mussolini? Mussolini? –A new Roman Empire What were the problems with the League of Nations? What were the problems with the League of Nations? –Failed to stop invasion of Ethiopia or Manchuria –US still not a member, Hitler takes Germany out What were the feelings in the US? What were the feelings in the US? –Isolationism, no more war, no part. in foreign wars Britain? Britain? –Fear war is inevitable –Demand peace, pacifist movements What was the reaction of France & GB when Hitler annexed Austria? What was the reaction of France & GB when Hitler annexed Austria? –They do nothing
To Do Read Chapter 17 Section 3 Read Chapter 17 Section 3 –Hitler wks (Due Monday)
Bell Work: page 557 Political effects of the Great Depression Political effects of the Great Depression –Government has a greater role –Extremist political parties Why would people accept extremist rulers? Why would people accept extremist rulers? –Promised a better life, equality –Simple solutions in exchange for power –Promise greatness Why would these leaders go to war? Why would these leaders go to war? –Likely seek more power by conquering other nations
Bell Work What do you know about Hitler? Discuss in class Objective Explain Hitler’s ideas and where they came from Video: Portrait of a Tyrant To Do Finish Hitler worksheet for Monday
Bell Work Homework Quiz “We must develop organizations in which an individual’s entire life can take place. …every activity and every need of every individual will be regulated by the collectivity represented by the party…there is no free will…the time of personal happiness is over” - Hitler
Hitler and Nazi Germany
Objectives Examine Hitler and his beliefs Explain how they appealed to the German nation Describe the rise of Hitler Understand Hitler’s goal for Germany Explain how he tries to achieve this goal
Background: Who was Hitler? His ideas Racism & anti-Semitism Extreme nationalist After WWI service, wanted to enter politics military injury with mustard gas gave him a vision to save Germany
Beer Hall Putsch In 1919 joined extremist group in Munich German-Workers’ Party became known as the Nazi Party Hitler planned an uprising the Beer Hall Putsch (coup) Munich in 1923 Hitler’s uprising was crushed Hitler was arrested for high treason
Mein Kampf In prison he wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle) Content Nationalism, anti-Semitism, anti- communism Links with Social Darwinism Emphasized right of superior nations to lebensraum (“living space”) through expansion
The Rise of the Party Hitler gains power Legal means, not violence Followed the rules of the Weimar Republic Nazi party must have enough votes to gain control Uses propaganda attack on the failures of the "Weimar system” By 1931, it was the largest party in Reichstag Hindenburg allowed Hitler to become chancellor
The Nazis Take Control “Enabling Act passed by Reichstag gave government power to ignore the constitution for 4 years No longer needed President Hindenburg Within 7 months totalitarian state was established Demand conformity concentration camps for any opposition Had single leader and single party Hitler became sole ruler Hindenburg died All political parties except Nazi party were eliminated Glorifies the state above the individual all institutions under state control
The Nazi State Goal: Wanted the development of the Aryan race to dominate Europe create an empire like Rome The Third Reich Hitler’s Success?? economic policies & terror
Reasons for Success Economic difficulties Unemployment has risen 4.4 million to 5.5 million in 1 year Hitler promised a new Germany Appealed to nationalism and militarism They saw him as a savior Hitler used public work projects to employ people A massive rearmament program Took credit for drop in unemployment
Use of Terror Used “Guard Squadrons” or SS to maintain order The main purpose enforcement of Nazi racial doctrine and anti- Semitic policies Heinrich Himmler Controlled the SS AND regular police forces Opened the first concentration camps One of the main architects of the Holocaust
To Do: Reading: Stalin Book – pages Answer questions
Bell Work: Read the 1 st & 2 nd Columns of the Reading: A new Era in Russia Answer the following questions Explain the NEP. Compare and contrast the two parties that resulted from Lenin’s death.
A New Era in the USSR: Stalin
Objectives Describe the divide in leadership after Lenin’s death
During the Civil War Lenin followed war communism Government controlled most industries Peasants retaliated by hoarding their food Drought followed = famine Then -- the industry suffered End result Peasants blame Lenin After the Civil War
NEP Lenin’s New Economic Policy To save Russia forgets war communism focuses on NEP NEP: was a modified version of the capitalistic system some small privately owned and operated stores Large industry & banking remained government owned
Rise of the Soviet Union Lenin and Communists formally create USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union) By this time: Things were better Revived market production rose No more famine Credit given to NEP for saving the USSR temporary ????? return to a communist state??? Lenin Dies
Trotsky and Stalin have problems Trotsky was in charge of the military Stalin was party secretary Appointed party officials Thousands of officials he appointed supported him Gained complete control of the Communist Party Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky struggle for control when Lenin dies in 1924
Stalin wins the power struggle and Trotsky is exiled and later murdered Most believe that his rival Stalin had him murdered
To Do: Finish reading and answer questions.
Did not get along with sons or daughter Son tried committing suicide but was unsuccessful, which only led to Stalin continuing to harass him. Left son in German concentration camp where he killed himself by running into an electric fence 1 st wife died of illness and 2 nd wife killed herself Daughter’s relationship with father tense, and she emigrated to America Other son died of alcoholism
Bell Work Who are the two men in the cartoon? What was their relationship? How do they feel about each other now? What are they accusing each other of doing?
Joseph Stalin Lenin
Objectives Explain how Stalin gained power in Russia Explain Stalin’s rule in the Soviet Union Describe the affects of his rule on the people
Stalin’s Impact: Five Year Plan Goal: transform Russia into a modern state Agriculture to industrial Ended NEP Replaced with Five Year Plan Set economic goals for five years
Five Year Plan 1 st Five Year Plan focused on maximum production of military equipment Increase industry as fast as possible Make money for the state Make the state powerful Remember the Industrial Revolution in England?
Costs of Industrialization: Just like England, but worse Collectivism private farms were eliminated Government owned all land and made the peasants work the land Led to: devastating effects Livestock slaughtering hoarding food led to widespread famine 10 million peasant deaths (says Stalin) Stalin “gave” each farm worker one tiny, privately owned lot
Price of resistence Anyone who resisted Stalin was isolated to Siberia Removed from power (Bolsheviks) Eliminated: army officials, diplomats, union officials, intellectuals, and citizens Millions sent to concentration camps (Gulag) Never returned Some Executed
To Do Video: Red Terror (Start about 10 minutes in) –Fill out the video guide
Exit Slip What do you think of Stalin? –I never knew… –I was shocked … –What one word best describes Stalin? “Ideas are more powerful than guns. We would not let our enemies have guns, why should we let them have ideas.”
Go over.... What do you think of Stalin? –I never knew… –I was shocked … –What one word best describes Stalin? “Ideas are more powerful than guns. We would not let our enemies have guns, why should we let them have ideas.”
To Do Read Gulag introduction Answer questions Discuss as a class Finish Gulag Web quest For tomorrow
Depression and dictator test Swing kid introduction questions Hitler youth questions????
Swing Kids Day One Go over Swing Kid questions Explain the HJ Start Movie Minutes 1-33 Peter gets arrested Day One Start 34 min (Knopp talks to Peter) End 100 min ( TV scenes of Hitler in Austria) Day One Start 110 min (Swing Club – Arvid plays) End 147 – Go over examples – Examples of Totalitarianism