Presentation on theme: "Bell Work: Answer the questions below after the HWQ"— Presentation transcript:
1Bell Work: Answer the questions below after the HWQ *What does the snake represent?*What does the rabbit represent?*What is the snake going to do to the rabbit?*Why?
2The Futile Search for Stability Chapter 17 Section 1
3Objective Explain how peace was temporary after WWI League of Nations Inflation in GermanyFailed attempts for peace
4Problem with Peace: League of Nations Wilson knew problems would arisehoped League of Nations would help settle problemsProblem with the planUS did not jointo avoid involvement in European affairsGermany did not joinNo real power
5French Demands Treaty called for Reparations France is furious Determined Germany owes 132 billion German marks$33 billion USFirst payment was in 19212nd payment never cameGermany could not pay moreFrance is furiousOccupied Ruhr ValleyGermany’s industrial and mining centercollect by taking profits
6Inflation in Germany Government adopted policy of passive resistance Workers went on strikeGovernment prints more money to pay workersCaused an inflationMark becomes worthless1914: 4.2 marks = $11923: 130 billion marks = $1Intensified: 4.2 TRILLION marks = $1
8Solution: Dawes Plan France and Germany want solution to the disaster In 8/1924 Dawes Plan is introduced1. Reduced reparations2. Coordinated Germany’s ability to pay with payments3. US Granted $200 million loan for Germany recoveryAmerican investment begins in EuropeAlleviated problems for 5 years, until WHEN?
9Dawes Plan Flow ChartWhat would happen if one of the parts “fell” out of the flow?
10Kellogg-Briand Pact Originally between France & the United states American Sec of State KelloggForeign minister Briand63 nations signedPledged to “renounce war as an instrument of national policy”no consequences if they broke pact
11Video Clip The People’s Century Lost Peace: 11 minutes (after 2 min of commercial)Answer the following while watching the clip:Describe how Europe was affected by WWI & the Treaty of Versailles.Changes, events, etc.
12Describe how Europe was affected by WWI & the Treaty of Versailles Germany almost completely disarmedOther countries fail to comply with disarmamentSelf-determinationPlebiscites (elections) are heldRefugeesfrom land changing handsGermany angeredLand takenReparationsInflationunemploymentno pity from France/GBAnti-War ~ Literature & moviesRight at the end: People were happy/hopefulGeneration was traumatized by the warfare/trenchesWilson’s hope / League of NationsTreaty of Versailles – Germans were in dismayAustria-Hungarian Empire is destroyedNew nations were createdCzech, Poland, YugoslaviaLeague of Nations meets’US, Russia & Germany don’t attend
13Bell Work Pair share ideas from Video Be ready to Describe how Europe was affected by WWI & the Treaty of Versailles.Changes, events, etc.Share 3 ideas with 3 different peopleBe ready toShare with the classPositive or negative??
14Global Depression: Democracy is on the defensive
15Objectives Explain the causes of the Global Depression Discuss the responses to the depressionGovernment responsesExplain Keynes’ theory
16The Great DepressionDepression: A period characterized by low economic activity (production & spending) and rising unemployment
17Causes of the Great Depression 1st Factordownturns in economies of individual nations2nd FactorU.S. Stock Market CrashEuropean stability was due to US bank loans to Germany (see Dawes)US stopped investing in Europe & other areasCaused depression around the world
18Global Depression: What is happening? The Great Depression had devastating effects in virtually every country, rich and poor.Unemployment in the United States rose to 25%, some countries rose as high as 33%.Massive inflationCities all around the world were hit hard, especially those dependent on industry.Farming and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by approximately 60 percent
19First response to the Depression Governments did not know how to reactLowered wagesDecreased productionGovernments didn’t want to spend too much $Decreased tradeMade the depression worse. Why?
20To Do: Depression Reading – in pairs Finish for homework Read each section out loud or to yourselvesWrite the main idea of each section in the right columnCircle or star anything that you do not understandFinish for homework
21Bell Work:Use your notes from the reading to create a Web (graphic organizer) for one of the following:Fascist DictatorshipCommunist DictatorshipWelfare Capitalism
22Ultimate Responses Dictatorship Welfare Capitalism Germany, Italy, Japan & Central AmericaPrices droppedCountries lost moneySocial unrest = military dictators promising orderFor controlWelfare CapitalismCanada, GB, France & USGovernment assumed responsibility not controlProvided security against bankruptcy & unemployment
23Keynes: Had a different idea John Maynard Keynes - British economistdepressions:Government must step in – increase spendingUnemployment came fromdecline in demandDemand can be increasedPut money back into the systemIf necessary:governments may have to go into deficit spending
24To Do: Reading Totalitarianism Homework: Read the first section: TotalitarianismFill in the Totalitarian Concept MapHomework:Finish Concept mapFinish ReadingBe able to answer questions in class tomorrow
25Bell Work: Think Pair Share! Get together with a partnerShare characteristics of TotalitarianismUse Concept map
26Rise of Dictators Chapter 17 Section 2 Totalitarianism
27ObjectivesExplain why many countries had adopted totalitarian dictatorial regimes Why did people accept it?Explain how those regimes aimed to control their citizens for state goals.
28Rise of Dictators Current State in Europe - 1939 France and Great Britain were democraticother states turned to totalitarian dictatorsTotalitarian Ideology – (ideas from concept map)Rejects the existing societyCorrupt or immoralCurrent gov’t is the cause of all the country’s problemsTotalitarianism:Government aims to control all aspects of the lives of citizenspolitical, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural
29Totalitarian State: Characteristics Demand conformitycontrol citizensuse propaganda techniquesHad single leader and single partyGlorifies the state above the individualIndividual was subordinate to the collective willNo individual freedoms
30Types of Totalitarianism Right-WingLeft-WingNazi / FascistHitlerMussoliniMiddle Class seeking to maintain powerKeep the class systemAppeals to the elite classCommunistMao Tse tungStalinWorking class seeking equalityEliminate the classesAppeals to the workersUsually a revolution
31Fascism in Italy Example of Totalitarianism Suffered economic problems after WWIStrikes & protests became commonCreated pathway for
33Benito Mussolini - Il Duce The 1st Fascist Fascist Ideology – Emphasized TotalitarianismSubordination of the individual to the stateControl all aspects of societyEven if violence is necessarySo why follow him?NationalismWe are the best, we deserve to ruleNeed for a strong leaderYour government is not workingI can help you … Give me power
35To Do: Video Clip The People’s Century Lost Peace: 10 minutes (more if needed)Answer the following while watching the clip:What promises were made by Hitler & Mussolini?What were the problems with the League of Nations?What were the feelings in the US & Britain?What was the reaction of France & GB when Hitler annexed Austria?
36Answers What promises were made by Hitler? Mussolini? Remove burdens of the Treaty of VersaillesPromised work & bread for all, eliminate unemploymentMussolini?A new Roman EmpireWhat were the problems with the League of Nations?Failed to stop invasion of Ethiopia or ManchuriaUS still not a member, Hitler takes Germany outWhat were the feelings in the US?Isolationism, no more war, no part. in foreign warsBritain?Fear war is inevitableDemand peace, pacifist movementsWhat was the reaction of France & GB when Hitler annexed Austria?They do nothing
38Bell Work: page 557 Political effects of the Great Depression Government has a greater roleExtremist political partiesWhy would people accept extremist rulers?Promised a better life, equalitySimple solutions in exchange for powerPromise greatnessWhy would these leaders go to war?Likely seek more power by conquering other nations
39Bell Work What do you know about Hitler? Objective Discuss in classObjectiveExplain Hitler’s ideas and where they came fromVideo: Portrait of a TyrantTo DoFinish Hitler worksheet for Monday
40Bell Work Homework Quiz “We must develop organizations in which an individual’s entire life can take place. …every activity and every need of every individual will be regulated by the collectivity represented by the party…there is no free will…the time of personal happiness is over”- Hitler
42Objectives Examine Hitler and his beliefs Describe the rise of Hitler Explain how they appealed to the German nationDescribe the rise of HitlerUnderstand Hitler’s goal for GermanyExplain how he tries to achieve this goal
43Background: Who was Hitler? His ideasRacism & anti-SemitismExtreme nationalistAfter WWI service, wanted to enter politicsmilitary injury with mustard gas gave him a vision to save Germany
44Beer Hall Putsch In 1919 joined extremist group in Munich German-Workers’ Partybecame known as the Nazi PartyHitler planned an uprisingthe Beer Hall Putsch (coup)Munich in 1923Hitler’s uprising was crushedHitler was arrested for high treason
45Mein Kampf In prison Content he wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle)ContentNationalism, anti-Semitism, anti-communismLinks with Social DarwinismEmphasized right of superior nations to lebensraum (“living space”) through expansion
46The Rise of the Party Hitler gains power Legal means, not violence Followed the rules of the Weimar RepublicNazi party must have enough votes to gain controlUses propagandaattack on the failures of the "Weimar system”By 1931, it was the largest party in ReichstagHindenburg allowed Hitler to become chancellor
47The Nazis Take Control Demand conformity “Enabling Act passed by Reichstaggave government power to ignore the constitution for 4 yearsNo longer needed President HindenburgWithin 7 months totalitarian state was establishedDemand conformityconcentration camps for any oppositionHad single leader and single partyHitler became sole rulerHindenburg diedAll political parties except Nazi party were eliminatedGlorifies the state above the individualall institutions under state control
48The Nazi State Goal: Hitler’s Success?? Wanted the development of the Aryan race to dominate Europecreate an empire like RomeThe Third ReichHitler’s Success??economic policies & terror
49Reasons for Success Economic difficulties Unemployment has risen4.4 million to 5.5 million in 1 yearHitler promised a new GermanyAppealed to nationalism and militarismThey saw him as a saviorHitler used public work projects to employ peopleA massive rearmament programTook credit for drop in unemployment
50Use of Terror Used “Guard Squadrons” or SS to maintain order The main purpose enforcement of Nazi racial doctrine and anti-Semitic policiesHeinrich HimmlerControlled the SS AND regular police forcesOpened the first concentration campsOne of the main architects of the Holocaust
54ObjectivesDescribe the divide in leadership after Lenin’s death
55During the Civil War After the Civil War Lenin followed war communism Government controlled most industriesPeasants retaliated by hoarding their foodDrought followed = famineThen -- the industry sufferedEnd resultPeasants blame Lenin
56Lenin’s New Economic Policy To save Russiaforgets war communismfocuses on NEPNEP: was a modified version of the capitalistic systemsome small privately owned and operated storesLarge industry & banking remained government owned
57Rise of the Soviet Union Lenin and Communists formally create USSRUnion of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union)By this time: Things were betterRevived marketproduction roseNo more famineCredit given to NEP for saving the USSRtemporary ?????return to a communist state???Lenin Dies
58Trotsky and Stalin have problems Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky struggle for control when Lenin dies in 1924Stalin was party secretary Appointed party officialsThousands of officials he appointed supported himGained complete control of the Communist PartyTrotsky was in charge of the military
59Stalin wins the power struggle and Trotsky is exiled and later murdered Most believe thathis rival Stalin hadhim murdered
61Did not get along with sons or daughter Son tried committing suicide but was unsuccessful, which only led to Stalin continuing to harass him. Left son in German concentration camp where he killed himself by running into an electric fence1st wife died of illness and 2nd wife killed herselfDaughter’s relationship with father tense, and she emigrated to AmericaOther son died of alcoholism
62Bell Work Who are the two men in the cartoon? What was their relationship?How do they feel about each other now?What are they accusing each other of doing?
64Objectives Explain how Stalin gained power in Russia Explain Stalin’s rule in the Soviet UnionDescribe the affects of his rule on the people
65Stalin’s Impact: Five Year Plan Goal:transform Russia into a modern stateAgriculture to industrialEnded NEPReplaced with Five Year PlanSet economic goals for five years
66Five Year Plan1st Five Year Plan focused on maximum production of military equipmentIncrease industry as fast as possibleMake money for the stateMake the state powerfulRemember the Industrial Revolution in England?
67Costs of Industrialization: Just like England, but worse Collectivismprivate farms were eliminatedGovernment owned all land and made thepeasants work the landLed to: devastating effectsLivestock slaughteringhoarding foodled to widespread famine10 million peasant deaths (says Stalin)Stalin “gave” each farm worker one tiny, privately owned lot
68Price of resistence Anyone who resisted Stalin was isolated to Siberia Removed from power (Bolsheviks)Eliminated: army officials, diplomats, union officials, intellectuals, and citizensMillions sent to concentration camps (Gulag)Never returnedSome Executed
69To Do Video: Red Terror (Start about 10 minutes in) Fill out the video guide
70Exit Slip What do you think of Stalin? I never knew…I was shocked …What one word best describes Stalin?“Ideas are more powerful than guns. We would not let our enemies have guns, why should we let them have ideas.”
71Go over . . . . What do you think of Stalin? I never knew…I was shocked …What one word best describes Stalin?“Ideas are more powerful than guns. We would not let our enemies have guns, why should we let them have ideas.”
72To Do Read Gulag introduction Finish Gulag Web quest Answer questions Discuss as a classFinish Gulag Web questFor tomorrow
74Depression and dictator test Swing kid introduction questionsHitler youth questions????
75Swing Kids Day One Go over Swing Kid questions Explain the HJ Start MovieMinutes 1-33Peter gets arrestedStart 34 min (Knopp talks to Peter)End 100 min ( TV scenes of Hitler in Austria)Start 110 min (Swing Club – Arvid plays)End 147 – Go over examples – Examples of Totalitarianism