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Cornell Notes. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________.

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Presentation on theme: "Cornell Notes. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cornell Notes

2 ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Questions Notes: World War II 1. Hitler’s Lightning War A. Germany Starts a New War in Europe i. Hitler signs nonaggression pact with Stalin ii. Germany attacks Poland and uses Blitzkrieg iii. Russia attacks Poland and other Baltic countries iv. Britain and France declare war on Germany B. France Surrenders June 22, 1940 i. French wait for attack behind the Maginot Line ii. Nazis attack Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg iii. Germans overran France – forced Allies to evacuate from Dunkirk to England C. The Battle of Britain i. Luftwaffe (airforce) bombed England ii. bombed British cities, but British air force won D. The Mediterranean and the Eastern front i. Italy drags Germany into war in North Africa ii. Rommel (Desert Fox) leads German Afrika Korps iii. Hitler takes Balkans to prepare for Russian war iv. June 22, 1941 Operation Barbarossa starts v. Russian destroy everything - “scorched earth” E. The United States Aids Its Allies i. Neutrality Acts - ban sales of all war supplies ii. Lend-Lease Act (March 1941) allowed supplies to friendly nations iii. Atlantic Charter – USA and Britain agree to free trade and peoples’ right to democracy

3 ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Questions Notes: 3.The Holocaust A. The Holocaust Begins i. Nazis believed Germans were Aryans (master race) and all others were inferior ii. Hitler used anti-semitism (hatred of Jews) to blame for Germany’s failure in World War I iii. In 1935 the Nazis pass the Nuremberg Laws, taking away citizenship and rights of Jews iv. Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) – attack Jews and Jewish property (November 9, 1938) v. forced emigration – Hitler sent Jews to other countries – who refused to take them vi. ghettos made where Jews were forced to live B. The “Final Solution” i. Hitler decided to eliminate all “inferior people”, Jews, gypsies, homosexuals, Poles, Russians, the incurably ill, the disabled ii. SS (elite forces) moved through Eastern Europe killing as many Jews as they could iii. concentration camps were created where Jews and other groups were sent to work and die in gas chambers

4 ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Questions Notes: 4.The Allied Victory A. The Tide Turns on Two Fronts (1943) i. Stalin wanted Allies to attack Germany in West but Allies delayed, focusing on North Africa ii. Axis forces defeated in North Africa in 1943 iii. Battle of Stalingrad turns the war in Russia iv. Allies invade Italy in 1943 B. The Allied Home Fronts i. factories converted for total war – help cause ii. propaganda used to get support iii. Japanese-Americans sent to internment camps C. Victory in Europe i. D-Day Invasion (aka Operation Overlord) began June 6, 1944 – Allies attacked Normandy ii. Battle of the Bulge – Hitler’s counter-attack in Ardennes Forest fails – Allied victory certain iii. Roosevelt dies April 1945, Germany surrenders May 9, 1945 (aka VE Day) D. Victory in the Pacific i. a top-secret operation, Manhattan Project, had developed a atomic (nuclear) bomb (aka A-bomb) ii. bombs dropped on Hiroshima and then Nagasaki iii. Japan surrenders September 2, 1945

5 ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Questions Notes: The Cold War 1. Cold war started at the end of World War II as the USSR and other allies argued A. Allies Become Enemies i. Yalta Conference (before end of WWII) allies met - discussed what would happen after war ii. June 1945 – United Nations was formed B. Eastern Europe’s Iron Curtain i. USSR wanted a buffer in the west ii. Stalin left Red Army in Eastern Europe iii. Potsdam Conference – Truman wants free elections in Eastern Europe – Stalin refuses iv. Churchill – “iron curtain” splits free - communist C. USA tries Containment of USSR i. Truman Doctrine (1947) – USA will contain the spread of communism everywhere in the world ii. Marshall Plan – massive aid to Europe to rebuild after WWII and stop communism spreading iii. Berlin Air Lift – supplies flown into Berlin after USSR shut ground supplies reaching the city D. The Cold War Divides the World i. NATO formed (1949) as defense against USSR ii. Warsaw Pact (1955) alliance of communist countries created in response to NATO iii. USA developed brinkmanship – pushing USSR to the edge of (nuclear) war everywhere

6 ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Questions Notes: 3. Wars in Korea and Vietnam A. War in Korea i. Korea was split at the 38 th parallel ii. in June 1950, communist North Korea invaded (US sponsored) South Korea iii. UN voted to support South (USSR absent) iv. Douglas MacArthur leads UN forces to Chinese border – Chinese send 300,000 troops to Korea v. cease-fire (1953), Korea split at 38 th parallel B. War in Vietnam i. Ho Chi Minh went to Versailles (1919) asked for Vietnamese independence (Wilson refused) ii. Ho returned and formed Vietminh iii. after WWII, Vietminh fought US supported French for freedom, USSR supported Vietminh iv. Dien Bien Phu – French forces defeated v. Geneva Conference created Communist North and Democratic South – divided at 17 th parallel vi. Domino Theory leads to US involvement a. Gulf of Tonkin Incident – US declares war b. brutal war becomes unpopular c. Vietnamization – Nixon’s plan to withdraw v. By 1973 US troops leave – 1975 all Vietnam communist after the Fall of Saigon vi. Cambodia became Communist in 1975 under Pol Pot and Khmer Rouge – start “Killing Fields” vii. Vietnam invades Cambodia (1978) restore order

7 ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Questions Notes: 4. The Cold War Around the World A. Fighting for the Third World i. Third World - nonaligned, newly independent countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America ii. USA, USSR (sometimes China) supported revolution, liberation, or counter-revolutions iii. assassination, spying, and all kinds of aid B. Confrontation in Latin America i. huge gap between rich and poor ii. US business interests resulted in US supporting anti-communist dictators iii. Fidel Castro took over Cuba and nationalized US owned businesses (mostly sugar plantations) iv. CIA trained an army and invaded at Bay of Pigs v. Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) USSR v. USA vi. CIA goes against Congress and supports Contras in Nicaragua – linked to trading arms with Iran C. Confrontation in the (Oil Rich) Middle East i. In 1953 Iranian President Muhammed Mossadeq nationalized Iran’s oil industry ii. CIA organized a revolution that removed the elected government and restored Shah (king) iii. Ayatollah Khomeini leads revolution in 1979 iv. Saddam Hussein attacks Iran in 1980 – US supplies both sides (1 million Iranian die) v. USSR invades Afghanistan in 1979 – USA supports mujahideen – including Osama bin Laden

8 ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Questions Notes: 5. The Cold War Thaws A. Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe and China i. After Stalin, Soviet leaders allowed Eastern European countries more control ii. 1956 – Nikita Krushchev denounced Stalin and called for “peaceful competition” with the West iii. 1956 – Hungarians overthrow communist government – USSR sends army to end uprising iv. In 1964 Soviet leaders replaced Krushchev with Leonid Breshnev who sent Warsaw Pact troops into Czechoslavakia to restore communist power v. By 1959, USSR and China were fighting (war) B. From Brinkmanship to Détente i. By 1970s Vietnam War straining US at home and abroad – Richard Nixon introduces détente (thawing) and moves towards peace ii. 1972 – Nixon visits Beijing and later Moscow iii. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) tries to reduce the number of nuclear weapons C. The Collapse of Détente (after 1979) i. USSR invades Afghanistan - increases hostility ii. Ronald Reagan elected president 1980 and starts to move away from détente iii. 1983 – USA starts Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) aka Star Wars – shoot down missiles

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