2 Pre 1930s DiplomacyPortsmouth Conference and Gentleman’s Agreement with Japan. Washington Conference Reduced Navies ratios : US-5, Brit-5, Jap-3, Italy–1.75, Fra-1.75 How did this actually help Japan? Kellogg Briand Pact - Signed by 62 nations to outlaw war Dawes Plan – Cycle of money. What happens when it stops? Good Neighbor Policy – Positive relations with Latin America. How will that help in WWII?
3 Early 1930s Timeline1931 – Japan invades Manchuria. What happens? U.S. issues Stimson Doctrine which says Japan claim is illegitimate 1932 – World Disarmament Conference – failure 1933 – Hitler becomes Chancellor FDR allows dollar to drop (helps U.S., hurts Europe) 1935 – Italy invades Ethiopia. What happens? Italy’s Fascist leader – Benito Mussolini U.S. passes first Neutrality Act (no arm sales to belligerents)
4 1936Spanish Civil War – seen as ideological between Fascism and Democracy What does U.S. do? Germany? France? Italy? Britain? Guess who wins? Fascist leader – Francisco Franco Germany moves into the Rhineland How does France and Britain react? U.S. issues 2nd Neutrality Act (no loans to belligerents)
5 1937Japan invades more of China FDR give “Quarantine” speech Japan sinks USS Panay, but apologizes What does the U.S. do? U.S. issues 3rd Neutrality Act (no shipment of arms to Spain)
6 1938Anschluss between Germany and __________ Hitler wrote about this in Mein Kampf (__ ________) Munich Conference Hitler demands Sudetenland, promises last place he wants What is significant about that area? British leader Neville Chamberlain allows it. Criticized by Winston Churchill. Calls it Appeasement
7 1939St. Louis – ship with 900 Jewish refugees arrived. What did the U.S. do? March- Germany takes over rest of Czechoslovakia. But Hitler promised… Aug – Non-aggression Pact between Germany and USSR Even through Hitler and Soviet leader Josef Stalin dislike each other. Sept 1st – Germany invades Poland with blitzkrieg attack. Sept 3rd – Britain declares war on Germany (France and others follow) Fall – USSR invades Baltic States and Finland Fall – “Phony War” on French/German border U.S. issues Neutrality Act, but allows for Cash-and-Carry of Weapons
9 Early HolocaustWhere did Hitler write of his views for Germany?Why were Jews the scapegoats?How were Jews treated in the U.S.?What other groups were targeted?Nuremberg Laws – 1935 legislation which restricted the rights of Jews in Germany.What did the Germans do once they entered Poland and other areas?How did the persecution of Jews help the U.S. war effort later on?
10 1940 – Spring and SummerAfter months of “phony war” Germany attacks. But who first? Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, and then France. (Italy also attacks southern France) Vichy France set up. (______ gov’t of who?) Tripartite Pact between Axis powers Germany and Italy with _____. Why?
11 1940 – FallFDR wins 1940 election against Wendell Willkie U.S. place embargo of oil and steel to Japan. What does that do? U.S. passes Selective Service Act. Are we in the war? Battle of Britain begins – What type fighting was it? How will Britain survive? U.S. passes Lend-Lease Act which helps those “vital to the defense of the U.S.” Seen as the end of official neutrality, Isolationists oppose it America First Committee
13 Are we there yet?Bases-for-Destroyers Deal (“Land-Lease”) – How does this help Britain double? Atlantic Charter – April, Secret meeting between U.S. (FDR) and Britain (Churchill). Made peace objectives for after war. Battle of Britain continues and Germany also invades USSR. Hitler double-crosses Stalin. Japan takes over former French colonies in Indochina. Shoot-on-Sight order by FDR – Convoys to shoot German wolfpack subs. USS Reuben James sunk by German sub. How do the U.S. people react?
14 December 7, 1941“Day of Infamy” at Pearl Harbor Over 2,400 Americans killed and Pacific Fleet damaged People stunned, but was it really a surprise? Japan’s Leader – Gen. Hideki Tojo Dec 8th after FDR’s Infamy speech, U.S. declares war on Japan. Three days later Germany and Italy declare war on U.S. Why?
15 Reflection QuestionsWhat could have been done to stop Hitler as he gained land? How is the U.S. and FDR alike and different from Hitler during the Great Depression and growth of government? How was the U.S. not actually neutral as they declared in the days before Pearl Harbor? Even through FDR wanted the U.S. to help Britain, why did we not join until after Pearl Harbor?
16 Links– little Hitler ted – Hitler and AP score parody – review video wwii-interactive - interactive site