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Introduction to the Axis Powers

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1 Introduction to the Axis Powers

2 Goal Be able to identify the main reasons why fascism took hold in Germany and Italy. Be able to identify similarities and differences between the governments of Germany, Italy, and Japan entering World War II

3 Germany Post World War I
Treaty of Versailles Terms are dictated to Germany by the Allies Massive reparations are required to repay to the allies The terms of the treaty are about: Land (Taking land from Germany) military (cutting the German army to <100,000 soldiers) No air force, tanks or heavy artillery allowed Navy was allowed 6 battleships and 15,000 men in the navy Blame: Germany was blamed for the war money (reparations)

4 Destabilization The Kaiser (leader of Germany) gives up power in 1918
Power is handed to a moderate left-wing Social Democrat Friedrich Ebert Still massive shortages of food, soldiers are disobeying with superiors Fears of a communistic dictatorship arise Response: The rebellion is crushed, Weimar Republic is created in 1919

5 The Weimar Republic Weimar Republic is set up in 1919 No monarchy
Uses a parliamentary government, president has powers limited by parliament Lack of stability and support for the Weimar Republic does not allow the government to focus on fixing the country’s problems. Germany has 14 different chancellors (heads of parliament) during the reign of the Weimar Republic ( )

6 The German Reparations and the Economy
Germany cannot pay all the reparations  France and Belgium: take over the Ruhr country as a consequence France and Belgium decide to use the profits from the industries in the Ruhr as a form of repayment. German workers go on strike to protest, the French use their own workers as a result

7 Hyperinflation Hyperinflation takes off because of the additional printing of money The German government prints more money for citizens and to pay reparations Goods for purchase (I.E. food) were not being produced anymore than before Result: Hyperinflation People that have savings lose everything. Life savings are lost.

8 Hyperinflation continued

9 Big Problems for Germany

10 German Unemployment

11 Hitler and the Rise of Nazism
1919 Adolf Hitler joins the small political party the German Workers Party. This party would eventually become known as the Nazi Party. There were just 40 members when he joined. By 1921 Hitler was the leader of the party. The party was renamed the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi for short). He blamed Jews and Communists for the problems of Germany.

12 Beer Hall Putsch In 1923 Hitler and his followers entered a beer hall in Munich. Hitler announces he is taking control of the government. Hitler states he is forming a temporary government. While marching to the government building the police disperse the crowd.  Hitler spends 9 months in prison for treason. During his time in jail Hitler writes Mein Kampf The failed Beer Hall Putsch shows Hitler he cannot take the country by force. He needs another method.

13 Using Political Methods
The Nazis use political campaigns to gain power Originally tried to use violence against Communists and Jews with the SA (Storm Troopers of the Nazi Party) By 1928 the Nazi Party has 100,000 members but still gain just 2.6% of German votes. Just 12 seats in the Reichstag 

14 Nazi Political Strategy
Nazis used propaganda to increase support and appeal. Spent large amounts of money on newspapers, campaigns and slogans Joseph Goebbels built Hitler’s image as a great leader Goebbels used fear of uncertainty and instability to portray Hitler as a man with great vision for prosperity and stability.

15 The Nazi Campaign Hitler’s plans to re-arm Germany were popular
Recruit a large army Build a new navy and air force As a result: reduce unemployment His ideas are appealing with many people out of work Attacked and blamed Jews in the business world

16 Gaining Power Nazis Gain Power 1929-1933
Nazis win 33% of the seats in the Reichstag in November 1932 elections (Largest single party) On January Hitler is voted in as Chancellor (Head of the legislature) Other German leaders believed they would have Hitler pushed into a political corner within months

17 Consolidating Power Reichstag Fire and Night of the Long Knives
Reichstag government building is burned to the ground.  Hitler asks President Hindenburg for emergency powers. Hitler is given emergency powers Communist politicians are arrested Nazis now hold a majority (Not 33%) in the Reichstag because of the arrests. Hitler consolidates power.

18 Fascism in Italy Fascism -> roots lie with Mussolini
Fascio —> Bundle of things Core of Fascism —> Extreme Nationalism —> Neither left or right wing Everything is subordinate to the state Economy is there to serve national interests —> State should have absolute control Totalitarian —> Aggressive foreign policy rooted in cultural superiority. Nazis are a more extreme version of Italy

19 Mussolini and his Rise to Power
Mussolini’s Rise to Power 1915 - Starts his own political party (Milan Fascio) significant because even before WWI he was starting fascist groups Enters WWI as a soldier and leaves in 1919 Creates a new political party - Fasci D. Combattimento (roughly 200 people) - Strongly anti-socialist ideology. Worried about the spread of socialism and communism. Strongly Nationalist

20 Fascism Gaining Traction
The Fasci D. Combattimento rename themselves the National Fascist Party (becomes a small but relevant party) Belief in Italy that the government and the left leaning political leaders are failing to run the country. Perception that fascists can bring stability through their uses of force. 

21 Benito Mussolini - Beliefs
Picture taken from Mussolini was in favor of state control of economics, society, and that the political system should be in the hands of few. He was opposed to Communism and was very Nationalistic and Militaristic. He directly influenced Hitler and the Nazi’s. Like Hitler, he was dismayed with classic liberal capitalism – but his movement was hyper-capitalist with a very strong state.

22 Marching on Rome October March on Rome (roughly 200,000 fascists) including Mussolini. King appoints Mussolini the Prime Minister. Mussolini is granted absolute control for 1 year by the legislature. King ok’s the absolute control. Mussolini is backed up by Black Shirts (similar to the S.A.) 

23 Consolidating Power Mussolini makes the Black Shirts a voluntary militia (MVSN). Legislature is convinced to pass the Acerbo Law. Whichever party is the largest party in the legislature has 25% of the vote gets 2/3 of the seats in Parliament. Consequence: The Fascists with the help of the Blackshirts get a 2/3 vote.

24 Consolidating Power Continued
Mussolini makes famous January Speech, considered formal start of his official dictatorship. Takes responsibility for Blackshirts. Mussolini is a charismatic speaker. Legislature passes a new law saying there are no checks on Mussolini’s power. 

25 Hitler Learns From Mussolini
Mussolini’s tactics that bring him to power are also used by Hitler to bring Hitler to power. Hitler looks up to Mussolini as a role model in his early days Hitler attempts the Beerhall Putsch out of the example set by Mussolini’s march on Rome.

26 Benito Mussolini - Beliefs
Mussolini was in favor of state control of economics, society, and that the political system should be in the hands of few. He was opposed to Communism and was very Nationalistic and Militaristic. He directly influenced Hitler and the Nazi’s. Like Hitler, he was dismayed with classic liberal capitalism – but his movement was hyper-capitalist with a very strong state

27 Japan Dreams of an Empire
Starting with a new dynasty in Japan (1868) came a period of radical modernization. New desires for wealth, power, and prestige came about They were attempts to correct the unequal treaties placed on Japan by America and Europe

28 Japan at War Sino-Japonese War (1894-1895)
Gave Japan its first real foothold on the Asian continent. Russo-Japanese War ( ) Japanese victory stunned Europe and America Many believe that Japan is the natural leader of Asia The Treaty of Portsmouth ended the war Negotiated by Teddy Roosevelt Gave Japan control over Korea and influence over Manchuria

29 Japanese Expansion During World War I Japanese elite that engaged in business and the military wanted Japan to expand. Specifically southward in Asia Expanding southward would make natural resources available to Japan Japan lacked many natural resources After World War I Japan acquired German territories in Asia

30 Japanese Aggression 1931 The Japanese attack Machuria in 1931
Justifications: Japan’s economy was deadlocked. The Great Depression caused European countries to limit trading with Japan. Barriers were placed by Europeans and Americans on trade with the Japanese because of the Great Depression. There was also a shortage of raw materials Japan also had an expanding population and sought new land for their expanding population

31 Japanese Expansion Continued
Belief that the League of Nations favored Europeans The theory of breaking the world into economic blocs (I.E. Europe, North America, and Asia) Japan should control Asia Create a federation in East Asia “Asia for Asians” (Leave out westerners)

32 Preparing for an Empire
Japan experiences a power change (1930s) The military takes more power away from the government Assassinations, intimidation, and propaganda are used to promote Japanese nationalism Japan’s political groups were not as extreme as right wing fascists Many embraced economic reform None of the groups seized power However, international liberalism (free trade and diplomacy) were no longer discussed.

33 Japan 1940 Japan felt the need to expand south into French Indochina
Began to ally with Germany and the Axis powers.  Fearful of Germany claiming territories in Asia Japan was also fearful of the “ABCD encirclement” America, Britain, China, and the Dutch ABCD Encirclement: Attempt to cut off Japan from natural resources needed to allow Japan to continue expanding their empire Response is for Japan to plan for war against the West

34 Hideki Tojo Takes Power
1920’s - Tojo works his way up the military ladder in Japan. 1930’s - Led troops in battle in China (Manchuria) Appointed War Minister Emperor Hirohito elevates Tojo to the post of Prime Minister

35 Hideki Tojo - Beliefs Tojo believed in the Superiority of the Japanese people (within the Pacific Rim). He was also ultra-nationalistic as well as very militaristic. He wanted to expand the Japanese empire throughout the Pacific Rim. Military alliances signed by the Japanese Emperor, England, and the US that kept Japan’s military inferior to US/UK. This angered the Japanese military nationalists who challenged the legitimacy of the agreements. Heavy presence of “spheres of influence” by western nations in China resulted in Japan claiming the present agreements were simply to maintain western imperialism. Depression in Japan –> need more resources

36 Hideki Tojo Beliefs Continued
Tojo is a fascist and believes in a totalitarian government. He believes in promoting a nationalistic and imperialistic indoctrination within Japan Similar to Hitler, he is complicit in inhumane experimentation with people considered unfit.

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