2GoalBe able to identify the main reasons why fascism took hold in Germany and Italy.Be able to identify similarities and differences between the governments of Germany, Italy, and Japan entering World War II
3Germany Post World War I Treaty of VersaillesTerms are dictated to Germany by the AlliesMassive reparations are required to repay to the alliesThe terms of the treaty are about:Land (Taking land from Germany)military (cutting the German army to <100,000 soldiers)No air force, tanks or heavy artillery allowedNavy was allowed 6 battleships and 15,000 men in the navyBlame: Germany was blamed for the warmoney (reparations)
4Destabilization The Kaiser (leader of Germany) gives up power in 1918 Power is handed to a moderate left-wing Social Democrat Friedrich EbertStill massive shortages of food, soldiers are disobeying with superiorsFears of a communistic dictatorship ariseResponse: The rebellion is crushed, Weimar Republic is created in 1919
5The Weimar Republic Weimar Republic is set up in 1919 No monarchy Uses a parliamentary government, president has powers limited by parliamentLack of stability and support for the Weimar Republic does not allow the government to focus on fixing the country’s problems.Germany has 14 different chancellors (heads of parliament) during the reign of the Weimar Republic ( )
6The German Reparations and the Economy Germany cannot pay all the reparations France and Belgium: take over the Ruhr country as a consequenceFrance and Belgium decide to use the profits from the industries in the Ruhr as a form of repayment.German workers go on strike to protest, the French use their own workers as a result
7HyperinflationHyperinflation takes off because of the additional printing of moneyThe German government prints more money for citizens and to pay reparationsGoods for purchase (I.E. food) were not being produced anymore than beforeResult: HyperinflationPeople that have savings lose everything. Life savings are lost.
11Hitler and the Rise of Nazism 1919 Adolf Hitler joins the small political party the German Workers Party. This party would eventually become known as the Nazi Party. There were just 40 members when he joined.By 1921 Hitler was the leader of the party. The party was renamed the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi for short). He blamed Jews and Communists for the problems of Germany.
12Beer Hall PutschIn 1923 Hitler and his followers entered a beer hall in Munich.Hitler announces he is taking control of the government.Hitler states he is forming a temporary government.While marching to the government building the police disperse the crowd. Hitler spends 9 months in prison for treason. During his time in jail Hitler writes Mein KampfThe failed Beer Hall Putsch shows Hitler he cannot take the country by force. He needs another method.
13Using Political Methods The Nazis use political campaigns to gain powerOriginally tried to use violence against Communists and Jews with the SA (Storm Troopers of the Nazi Party)By 1928 the Nazi Party has 100,000 members but still gain just 2.6% of German votes.Just 12 seats in the Reichstag
14Nazi Political Strategy Nazis used propaganda to increase support and appeal.Spent large amounts of money on newspapers, campaigns and slogansJoseph Goebbels built Hitler’s image as a great leaderGoebbels used fear of uncertainty and instability to portray Hitler as a man with great vision for prosperity and stability.
15The Nazi Campaign Hitler’s plans to re-arm Germany were popular Recruit a large armyBuild a new navy and air forceAs a result: reduce unemploymentHis ideas are appealing with many people out of workAttacked and blamed Jews in the business world
16Gaining Power Nazis Gain Power 1929-1933 Nazis win 33% of the seats in the Reichstag in November 1932 elections (Largest single party)On January Hitler is voted in as Chancellor (Head of the legislature)Other German leaders believed they would have Hitler pushed into a political corner within months
17Consolidating Power Reichstag Fire and Night of the Long Knives Reichstag government building is burned to the ground. Hitler asks President Hindenburg for emergency powers.Hitler is given emergency powersCommunist politicians are arrestedNazis now hold a majority (Not 33%) in the Reichstag because of the arrests.Hitler consolidates power.
18Fascism in Italy Fascism -> roots lie with Mussolini Fascio —> Bundle of thingsCore of Fascism —> Extreme Nationalism —> Neither left or right wingEverything is subordinate to the stateEconomy is there to serve national interests —> State should have absolute controlTotalitarian —> Aggressive foreign policy rooted in cultural superiority.Nazis are a more extreme version of Italy
19Mussolini and his Rise to Power Mussolini’s Rise to Power1915 - Starts his own political party (Milan Fascio) significant because even before WWI he was starting fascist groupsEnters WWI as a soldier and leaves in 1919Creates a new political party - Fasci D. Combattimento (roughly 200 people) - Strongly anti-socialist ideology. Worried about the spread of socialism and communism. Strongly Nationalist
20Fascism Gaining Traction The Fasci D. Combattimento rename themselves the National Fascist Party (becomes a small but relevant party)Belief in Italy that the government and the left leaning political leaders are failing to run the country. Perception that fascists can bring stability through their uses of force.
21Benito Mussolini - Beliefs Picture taken fromMussolini was in favor of state control of economics, society, and that the political system should be in the hands of few.He was opposed to Communism and was very Nationalistic and Militaristic. He directly influenced Hitler and the Nazi’s.Like Hitler, he was dismayed with classic liberal capitalism – but his movement was hyper-capitalist with a very strong state.
22Marching on RomeOctober March on Rome (roughly 200,000 fascists) including Mussolini. King appoints Mussolini the Prime Minister.Mussolini is granted absolute control for 1 year by the legislature. King ok’s the absolute control. Mussolini is backed up by Black Shirts (similar to the S.A.)
23Consolidating PowerMussolini makes the Black Shirts a voluntary militia (MVSN).Legislature is convinced to pass the Acerbo Law.Whichever party is the largest party in the legislature has 25% of the vote gets 2/3 of the seats in Parliament.Consequence: The Fascists with the help of the Blackshirts get a 2/3 vote.
24Consolidating Power Continued Mussolini makes famous January Speech, considered formal start of his official dictatorship.Takes responsibility for Blackshirts.Mussolini is a charismatic speaker. Legislature passes a new law saying there are no checks on Mussolini’s power.
25Hitler Learns From Mussolini Mussolini’s tactics that bring him to power are also used by Hitler to bring Hitler to power.Hitler looks up to Mussolini as a role model in his early daysHitler attempts the Beerhall Putsch out of the example set by Mussolini’s march on Rome.
26Benito Mussolini - Beliefs Mussolini was in favor of state control of economics, society, and that the political system should be in the hands of few.He was opposed to Communism and was very Nationalistic and Militaristic. He directly influenced Hitler and the Nazi’s.Like Hitler, he was dismayed with classic liberal capitalism – but his movement was hyper-capitalist with a very strong state
27Japan Dreams of an Empire Starting with a new dynasty in Japan (1868) came a period of radical modernization.New desires for wealth, power, and prestige came aboutThey were attempts to correct the unequal treaties placed on Japan by America and Europe
28Japan at War Sino-Japonese War (1894-1895) Gave Japan its first real foothold on the Asian continent.Russo-Japanese War ( )Japanese victory stunned Europe and AmericaMany believe that Japan is the natural leader of AsiaThe Treaty of Portsmouth ended the warNegotiated by Teddy RooseveltGave Japan control over Korea and influence over Manchuria
29Japanese ExpansionDuring World War I Japanese elite that engaged in business and the military wanted Japan to expand.Specifically southward in AsiaExpanding southward would make natural resources available to JapanJapan lacked many natural resourcesAfter World War I Japan acquired German territories in Asia
30Japanese Aggression 1931 The Japanese attack Machuria in 1931 Justifications:Japan’s economy was deadlocked.The Great Depression caused European countries to limit trading with Japan.Barriers were placed by Europeans and Americans on trade with the Japanese because of the Great Depression.There was also a shortage of raw materialsJapan also had an expanding population and sought new land for their expanding population
31Japanese Expansion Continued Belief that the League of Nations favored EuropeansThe theory of breaking the world into economic blocs (I.E. Europe, North America, and Asia) Japan should control AsiaCreate a federation in East Asia“Asia for Asians” (Leave out westerners)
32Preparing for an Empire Japan experiences a power change (1930s)The military takes more power away from the governmentAssassinations, intimidation, and propaganda are used to promote Japanese nationalismJapan’s political groups were not as extreme as right wing fascistsMany embraced economic reformNone of the groups seized powerHowever, international liberalism (free trade and diplomacy) were no longer discussed.
33Japan 1940 Japan felt the need to expand south into French Indochina Began to ally with Germany and the Axis powers. Fearful of Germany claiming territories in AsiaJapan was also fearful of the “ABCD encirclement”America, Britain, China, and the DutchABCD Encirclement: Attempt to cut off Japan from natural resources needed to allow Japan to continue expanding their empireResponse is for Japan to plan for war against the West
34Hideki Tojo Takes Power 1920’s - Tojo works his way up the military ladder in Japan.1930’s - Led troops in battle in China (Manchuria)Appointed War MinisterEmperor Hirohito elevates Tojo to the post of Prime Minister
35Hideki Tojo - BeliefsTojo believed in the Superiority of the Japanese people (within the Pacific Rim). He was also ultra-nationalistic as well as very militaristic. He wanted to expand the Japanese empire throughout the Pacific Rim.Military alliances signed by the Japanese Emperor, England, and the US that kept Japan’s military inferior to US/UK. This angered the Japanese military nationalists who challenged the legitimacy of the agreements.Heavy presence of “spheres of influence” by western nations in China resulted in Japan claiming the present agreements were simply to maintain western imperialism.Depression in Japan –> need more resources
36Hideki Tojo Beliefs Continued Tojo is a fascist and believes in a totalitarian government.He believes in promoting a nationalistic and imperialistic indoctrination within JapanSimilar to Hitler, he is complicit in inhumane experimentation with people considered unfit.