After World War 1, Germany was devastated. Germany owed $33 billion dollars for the damage caused during the war. With no hope of recovery, a man named Adolf Hitler came along. He eventually became leader of a fascist dictatorship in Germany, leading the country through World War II
He was born in Austria As a child, his father beat him often and disciplined him harshly. This was because his father was arrested as a thief and didn’t want Hitler to go down the same road he had. He did not support Hitler becoming an artist. He was an artist, he applied to an art college and an architectural college. Both colleges denied his applications. He refused to sign up for the Austrian Hungary army and when they finally caught up with him, they deemed him too weak to fight.
Hitler was excited for a new chance for life. Not wanting to sign up for the Austrian Hungary’s army, he signed up for Germany’s. Hitler liked war, not because of Nationalism, but because he liked fighting. He would suddenly stand up at times and make speeches against Jews and Marxists. He was described as odd and peculiar. He liked showing off for his commanding officers and won many medals. He was blinded by mustard gas. He wouldn’t talk to anyone in the hospital because he thought he was a failure. When he became the leader of the Fascist Dictatorship, he was known as Der Fuhrer
Made Nazi party and became the Fuhrer of the association. Was arrested when he tried to seize power in Munich 1923 Mein Kampf: wrote a book in jail. English translation means My Struggle. It outlined his plans for the Aryan race. He declared that non Aryan races such as Jews, Slavs, Gypsies were inferior Lebensraum: Hitler declared that Germany was overcrowded And needed my Lebensraum or living space. He promised to get that space by conquering Europe and Russia
Defied Versailles treaty Disobeyed restrictions of army size League of Nations failed to stop him Hitler took greater risks, German troops moved in restricted territory Britain wanted peace Hitler realized how weak other countries were and pushed harder Made alliance with Japan and Italy. March 1993- Annexed Austria Munich Conference: Mussolini gathered Germany, France, Britain. Wanted to obtain appeasement.
This was a program made by the Nazis. It was to prepare the boys for military service and the girls for motherhood. Attendance of the meetings were so poor that Hitler made it made it mandatory.
Deprived Jews of rights through laws Violence against Jews was mounted Kristallnacht- Nov. 9, 1938 Nazi mobs attacked houses and Jewish businesses This was the first real move to total extermination of Jews
Racial Purity- people who were of other races or with disabilities They believed in a type of social Darwinism can Eugenics. This was the practice of selectively breeding Germans with favorable traits. Antipathy: deep hatred between two parties Anti- Semitism: discrimination of the Jewish people
Fascism: a government led by an all powerful militaristic leader. Often has features of racism and censorship. Supremacy: thinking that your race or family is supreme to others. The Nazis incorporated all of these things and more. They would exterminate disabled children and people and Jewish people because they wanted Germany to be “Perfect”
Germany’s first invasion was Sept. 1 1939 Germany wanted control of the Mediterranean sea, so they attacked North Africa Britain striked back and took 130,000 Italian prisoners. Germany jumped in to help their allies.British forces retreated to the East. In the Balkans Hitler persuaded Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary to join the Axis powers. He invaded Yugoslavia and Greece, both of which were victories
Winston Churchill stated that Englad would never surrender Hitler focused on invading England Knocked out Royal Air Force 1940- summer, Germany bombs Great Britain Nightly bombings Children in London were shipped to countryside so they’d be safe
Operation Barbarossa- attacked Soviet Union in 1941 even after the nonaggression act had been signed. Russia was unprepared and not well trained. They pushed 500 miles into Russia. Winter hit and 2.5 million people starved in the cities. Germany was forced to retreat. This had weakened them with a lost of 500,000 men.
Along with his wife, Eva, Hitler committed suicide on April 30, 1945 in Fuhrerburker, Berlin by gun shot. Hitler appointed Admiral Karl Donitz as his successor with orders to continue fighting On the 6 th of May, Donitz authorized General Alfred Jodi to issue an armistice agreement with General Eisenhower The official surrender occurred on the 7 th of May in Reims, France The Russians insisted on a separate signing to take place in Berlin on May 9 th
Germany was once again devastated Germans were pushed out of land they had gained, many not surviving the trip. Inflation again happened. It was like World War 1 all over again, only this time the other countries had control over Germany.
1. What kind of government was Germany in WWII? o A. Dictatorship o B. Fascist Dictatorship o C. Democratic o D. Monarchy 2. What was Hitler referred to as? o A. De Fuhrer o B. King o C. Leader o D. Duke 3. Anti Semitism would be defined as: o A. Hatred of all other races o B. Hatred of the Jewish people o C. Hatred of the Aryan race o D. Hatred of the British People What country was mainly responsible for the biggest loss to the German military? o A. Austria o B. Japan o C. Britain o D. Russia 5. What was Hitler’s first choice of occupation? o A. Leader of Germany o B. Soldier in the Austrian Army o C. Artist o D. Sculptor 1. What was the Hitler Youth program? 2. What did the war do to Germany overall? 3. Why did Hitler commit suicide?
1. B 2. A 3. B 4. D 5. C 1. The Hitler Youth program was started so that the Nazi beliefs and army would stay strong or become stronger with each passing generation. 2. WWII was started with Germany’s intention to fix all that was wrong with the country from WWI. WWII basically just sent them back to the same situation they were in after WWI. In a lot of debt. 3. Mussolini was a cruel dictator, not unlike Hitler. When Hitler found out the way Mussolini was killed, he got scared and decided to end his life then.