Presentation on theme: "World War II Political and Economic Struggles in Europe: 1.Devastation of World War I 2.Communist Revolution in Russia Paris Peace Conference 3.Problems."— Presentation transcript:
Political and Economic Struggles in Europe: 1.Devastation of World War I 2.Communist Revolution in Russia Paris Peace Conference 3.Problems of Paris Peace Conference 4.Great Depression Economic Crisis showed failure ideals of democracy. People received no help from government People turned to strong leaders who provided limited civil liberties for help.
Karl Marx Karl Marx Command Economy Command Economy Socialism Socialism Communism Communism Russian Revolution February 1917 Russian Revolution Overthrew Czar Nicholas II Bolshevik Revolution Bolshevik Revolution Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Lenin
Lenin’s Slogan: “Peace, Bread and Land” Pull Russia out of the war with the central powers Ample food and land for the people of Russia Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Treaty of Brest-Litovsk – Peace with Germany Lenin had strict control of government and people. New Economic Policy Mixed Economy Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
1.World Powers wanted Germany to suffer for World War I Armistice 2.Germany signed an Armistice hoping for a favorable peace agreement. 3.Germany set up a democratic government. 4.Germany was excluded from League of Nations Treaty of Versailles 5.Powers forced Germany to accept the Treaty of Versailles 6.Debilitated Germany’s military War Reparations 7.Made Germany pay War Reparations 8.Made Germany admit sole responsibility for World War I 9.Broke up the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which broke up ethnic groups.
World War I crushed the economies of the European nations. Large debts Losing countries struggled to pay reparations and the victorious nations counted on that payment to repay the United States. Soldiers could not find jobs after the war. October 29 th, 1929 New York Stock Market crashed. Great Depression Great Depression Smoot-Hawley Tariff United States passed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff
Mass unemployment Poverty Despair Unstable economy and societies, people lost confidence in their elected leaders. People turned to political movements Nationalism Nationalism grew the most in the poorest countries. Each country pushed for their own interest
Totalitarian government Totalitarian government Dictatorship Dictatorship
Benito Mussolini Benito Mussolini Fascism Fascism Fascist Party Fascist Party Constitutional Monarchy Constitutional Monarchy Expansionism Expansionism Francisco Franco Francisco Franco Glorification of the State Glorification of the State Xenophobia Xenophobia and Racism Pogroms Pogroms
1925 Japan allowed a switch from nobility and military to democratic ideals Emperor Hirohito Emperor Hirohito Showa Showa Manchuria Japanese army invaded Manchuria Japanese military established control
Armed gangs of fascists and communists NAZIS Fuhrer – Adolf Hitler Aryan Race Genocide Anti-Sematic War Reparations Scapegoating Gestapo
Joseph Stalin (1930) Brutal violence Had all opposition to Communism put to death. 1.5 to 7 million.
CommunismFascism Goal Marx wanted factory workers to revolt. Workers to control production. Wanted to eliminate religion. Strong centralized government. Mussolini and Hitler felt they were heirs to great empires. National dominance by strong central government and strict control over their people. Ignored peoples rights. Practice Stalin eliminated private enterprise. Established strict government control on economy. One Party Rule – Strong inner circle. Spread Communism Practice Mussolini held strict control over society Aligned himself with big business Hitler aligned himself with big business Hitler used torture and murder to place entire country under Nazi rule. Result Increased industrial production Agriculture failed Uniform control over society Eliminated Church influence Strong Military No Civil Liberties Result Mussolini went economic decline, rich kept wealth and worker’s suffered. Hitler pulled Germany out of the depression. Eliminating unemployment Developed strong military National Pride United Protestant Churches
63 Nations signed the Paris Peace Pact (Kellogg-Briand Pact) Except Russia Promised to use negotiations rather than war to solve problems. Except for self defense. Germany Italy and Japan ignored the pact
Invaded Manchuria Withdrew from the League of Nations China signed a treaty with Japan ceding Manchuria Japan seized all major cities along the coast
Invaded Ethiopia Joined forces with Germany Joined the Rome/Berlin/Tokyo Axis (Axis Powers) Allied Powers (Britain and France) Italy invaded Albania
Hitler moved troops into the Rhineland Annexed Austria Annexed part of Czechoslovakia (Sudetenland) through Appeasement at the Munich conference. Hitler agreed to a non aggression pact with Russia.
Hitler took the rest of Czechoslovakia Invaded Poland Hitler used Blitzkrieg method 1939 France and Britain declared war on Germany
Strong Isolationists Sad memories of World War I Unpaid war debts from European countries Afraid of another depression Believed arms manufacturers and Wall Street pushed United States into World War I Neutrality Acts Passed the Ludlow Amendment United States used a “cash and carry” policy
Germany invaded 1.Denmark and Norway 2.Belgium and Holland 3.France Winston Churchill new Prime Minister in Britain Battle of Britain RAF Radar
Peace time Draft Franklin Roosevelt elected to 3 rd term (4) Continued to aid Great Britain Selective Training and Service Act Only excused by religious training and beliefs Conscientious Objectors Neutrality Policy hurt rather than helped Lend Lease Act Atlantic Charter Soviet Union used the Scorched Earth Policy
French Resistance Communists and Non Communist Charles de Gaulle Forces of France