Presentation on theme: "A World in Flames 1939-1945. The Rise of Dictatorships The Treaty of Versailles along with economic depression contributed to antidemocratic governments."— Presentation transcript:
The Rise of Dictatorships The Treaty of Versailles along with economic depression contributed to antidemocratic governments in both Europe and Asia. These governments broke the agreement of the Treaty.
In 1919 Benito Mussolini founded Italy's fascism movement This was an aggressive nationalism movement that considered the nation more important than the individual. Mussolini believe that order in society and national greatness came through a dictatorship who led a strong government and built an empire. However, he was strong anticommunist, Mussolini protected middle class and private property.
When he threatened Rome in March 1922, members of the Parliament asked the King to declare war…but he didn’t. …most member resigned making this easy for Benito to take over.
After the Russian Revolution the Communists Party Leader Vladimir Lenin created the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1922. After his death, Joseph Stalin came to power Family farms were collectives, or government-owned. He used concentration camps, which held about 2 million people by 1935….. Slave labors.
Hitler hated the Germany for accepting peace treaties during WWI He became leader of National Socialist German worker’s party or Nazi Party In Nov 1923 the Nazi take control of Munich, Germany… however their plan failed the party was ban and Hitler was arrested.
In prison, he wrote a book “My Struggle” In his book, he believe that blue eyes/ blond hair Germans belonged to “master race” called Aryans. He argued that Slavic people belonged to an inferior race which Germans should enslaved. He blamed Jews for many of the world’s problems, specially for Germany defeat in WWI. After his release, he changed his tactics …made sure to elect Nazi to the Parliament By 1932, the Nazi were the largest party. The following year they elected Hitler as chancellor (president)…. He became known as the leader.
Japan had difficult economic times Many Japanese military officers blamed corrupt politicians They argued that to take control other countries was the only way to improve their economy. In September 1931, the Japanese invaded Manchurian a region north of China. But hoping not to get in trouble with the U.S. they withdrew the troops from China. However, they refused and Japan destroyed lot of cities in China….. This became known as: Rape of Nanking” (city in China) In October 1941, Tojo became Prime Minister in Japan he supported an aggressive military policy.
Hitler rebelled against the Treaty of Versailles He called for unification of all German- speaking people. In Feb 1938, he threatened to invade German-speaking Austria unless Austrian Nazi were given important government posts. After a failed, Hitler sent troops to Austria and announced Anschluss, or unification, of Austria and Germany.
Hitler claims an are of Czechoslovakia with a large German-Speaking population. The Republic resisted Hitler France and the Soviet Union threatened to fight if the Germans attacked Czechoslovakia. In September 29,1938 Britain, Italy and Germany met in Munich Britain and France agreed to Hitler’s demands…this became known as appeasement. They believed if they gave Hitler what he wanted they could avoid war In March 1939, Hitler divided the country: Slovakia became independent name under German control and Czech lands became a German territory.
Danzing, Poland –became part of Hitler’s control (90% were German-speaking) March 31,1939, Britain announced that if Poland went to war to defend territory, Britain and France would come to its aid.
Sep 1, 1939 Germany invited Poland 2 days later WWII begun!! Germans used new warfare “blitzkrieg” or lighting war Used massed tanks, combined with waves of aircraft and paratroopers to break through and encircle enemy positions. By October 5,1939 Germans defeated Poland. May 10, 1940 Hitler launched a new attack on Belgium and Luxembourg As the British and French trooped rushed to Belgium; Germany invaded France.
German troops drove Allied forces toward the English Channels As German forces moved out of Dunkirk, Hitler order them to stop for three days. (reasons known) About 338,000 French and British troops had been saved during the “Miracle at Dunkirk” 3 weeks later France surrender and Hitler assigned a German Leader to run France On June 4, 1940 British Prime Minister Winton Churchill gave a speech vowing that Britain will never surrender. After British advantage with radar, Hitler cancelled invading Britain.
Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria) versus Allies (U.S., Britain, France, USSR, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Greece, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, South Africa, Yugoslavia).
The rise of dictatorship and militarism discourage many Americans. The Nye Committee Many accusations emerged that arms manufactures had tricked the U.S. into entering the U.S. Gerald P. Nye held hearings to investigate… Many Americans disapproved of the War
Neutrality Act of 1935- made it illegal for Americans to sell arms to any country at war. Even Spain at the time had a Civil War. (Franco) Hitler and Mussolini pledge to cooperate on several international issues. Japan allied with Germany and Italy= AXIS Powers! President Roosevelt supported internationalism: the idea that trade b/w nations created prosperities and helps prevent war.
Roosevelt wanted to help Britain and France- he asked Congress to revise the neutrality acts to allow the sale of weapons to warring nations. Neutrality Act on 1939- Congress allowed sales but only on “cash and carry” basis. By December 1940-Briatin runs out of money to fund the war: Lend-Lease Act. Allowed the U.S. to lend or lease arms to any country considered “vital to the defense of the U.S.”
German submarines sank hundredth of thousands of cargo each month. The British lacked the ships to block them. Because the U.S. was officially neutral Roosevelt could not order the navy to protect British Therefore, he developed the idea of of hemisphere defense zone, …. he ordered the U.S. Navy to patrol the western Atlantic and reveal the location of German submarines to the British.
Roosevelt’s efforts to help Britain fight Germany resulted in Japan’s decisions to attack the U.S.