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A World in Flames 1939-1945. The Rise of Dictatorships  The Treaty of Versailles along with economic depression contributed to antidemocratic governments.

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Presentation on theme: "A World in Flames 1939-1945. The Rise of Dictatorships  The Treaty of Versailles along with economic depression contributed to antidemocratic governments."— Presentation transcript:

1 A World in Flames 1939-1945

2 The Rise of Dictatorships  The Treaty of Versailles along with economic depression contributed to antidemocratic governments in both Europe and Asia.  These governments broke the agreement of the Treaty.

3  In 1919 Benito Mussolini founded Italy's fascism movement  This was an aggressive nationalism movement that considered the nation more important than the individual.  Mussolini believe that order in society and national greatness came through a dictatorship who led a strong government and built an empire.  However, he was strong anticommunist, Mussolini protected middle class and private property.

4  When he threatened Rome in March 1922, members of the Parliament asked the King to declare war…but he didn’t. …most member resigned making this easy for Benito to take over.

5  After the Russian Revolution the Communists Party Leader Vladimir Lenin created the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1922.  After his death, Joseph Stalin came to power  Family farms were collectives, or government-owned.  He used concentration camps, which held about 2 million people by 1935….. Slave labors.

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7  Hitler hated the Germany for accepting peace treaties during WWI  He became leader of National Socialist German worker’s party or Nazi Party  In Nov 1923 the Nazi take control of Munich, Germany… however their plan failed the party was ban and Hitler was arrested.

8  In prison, he wrote a book “My Struggle”  In his book, he believe that blue eyes/ blond hair Germans belonged to “master race” called Aryans.  He argued that Slavic people belonged to an inferior race which Germans should enslaved.  He blamed Jews for many of the world’s problems, specially for Germany defeat in WWI.  After his release, he changed his tactics …made sure to elect Nazi to the Parliament  By 1932, the Nazi were the largest party. The following year they elected Hitler as chancellor (president)…. He became known as the leader.

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10  Japan had difficult economic times  Many Japanese military officers blamed corrupt politicians  They argued that to take control other countries was the only way to improve their economy.  In September 1931, the Japanese invaded Manchurian a region north of China.  But hoping not to get in trouble with the U.S. they withdrew the troops from China.  However, they refused and Japan destroyed lot of cities in China….. This became known as: Rape of Nanking” (city in China)  In October 1941, Tojo became Prime Minister in Japan he supported an aggressive military policy.

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12  Hitler rebelled against the Treaty of Versailles  He called for unification of all German- speaking people.  In Feb 1938, he threatened to invade German-speaking Austria unless Austrian Nazi were given important government posts.  After a failed, Hitler sent troops to Austria and announced Anschluss, or unification, of Austria and Germany.

13  Hitler claims an are of Czechoslovakia with a large German-Speaking population.  The Republic resisted Hitler  France and the Soviet Union threatened to fight if the Germans attacked Czechoslovakia.  In September 29,1938 Britain, Italy and Germany met in Munich  Britain and France agreed to Hitler’s demands…this became known as appeasement.  They believed if they gave Hitler what he wanted they could avoid war  In March 1939, Hitler divided the country: Slovakia became independent name under German control and Czech lands became a German territory.

14  Danzing, Poland –became part of Hitler’s control (90% were German-speaking)  March 31,1939, Britain announced that if Poland went to war to defend territory, Britain and France would come to its aid.

15  Sep 1, 1939 Germany invited Poland  2 days later WWII begun!!  Germans used new warfare “blitzkrieg” or lighting war  Used massed tanks, combined with waves of aircraft and paratroopers to break through and encircle enemy positions.  By October 5,1939 Germans defeated Poland.  May 10, 1940 Hitler launched a new attack on Belgium and Luxembourg  As the British and French trooped rushed to Belgium; Germany invaded France.

16  German troops drove Allied forces toward the English Channels  As German forces moved out of Dunkirk, Hitler order them to stop for three days. (reasons known)  About 338,000 French and British troops had been saved during the “Miracle at Dunkirk”  3 weeks later France surrender and Hitler assigned a German Leader to run France  On June 4, 1940 British Prime Minister Winton Churchill gave a speech vowing that Britain will never surrender.  After British advantage with radar, Hitler cancelled invading Britain.

17  Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria) versus Allies (U.S., Britain, France, USSR, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Greece, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, South Africa, Yugoslavia).

18  The rise of dictatorship and militarism discourage many Americans. The Nye Committee  Many accusations emerged that arms manufactures had tricked the U.S. into entering the U.S.  Gerald P. Nye held hearings to investigate…  Many Americans disapproved of the War

19  Neutrality Act of 1935- made it illegal for Americans to sell arms to any country at war.  Even Spain at the time had a Civil War. (Franco)  Hitler and Mussolini pledge to cooperate on several international issues.  Japan allied with Germany and Italy= AXIS Powers!  President Roosevelt supported internationalism: the idea that trade b/w nations created prosperities and helps prevent war.

20  Roosevelt wanted to help Britain and France- he asked Congress to revise the neutrality acts to allow the sale of weapons to warring nations.  Neutrality Act on 1939- Congress allowed sales but only on “cash and carry” basis.  By December 1940-Briatin runs out of money to fund the war: Lend-Lease Act.  Allowed the U.S. to lend or lease arms to any country considered “vital to the defense of the U.S.”

21  German submarines sank hundredth of thousands of cargo each month.  The British lacked the ships to block them.  Because the U.S. was officially neutral Roosevelt could not order the navy to protect British  Therefore, he developed the idea of of hemisphere defense zone, …. he ordered the U.S. Navy to patrol the western Atlantic and reveal the location of German submarines to the British.

22  Roosevelt’s efforts to help Britain fight Germany resulted in Japan’s decisions to attack the U.S.


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