Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazism The Life of Adolf Hitler His Early Years The development of his racial attitudes His World War I experience After."— Presentation transcript:
The Life of Adolf Hitler His Early Years The development of his racial attitudes His World War I experience After the war, moved to Munich in Bavaria
The Life of Adolf Hitler In 1919, he joined a struggling group called the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis) Failure of Munich Beer-Hall Putsch (November 9, 1923) demonstrated that power must be taken through legal means.
Imprisonment While in prison, Hitler analyzed the party’s strategy –Political strategies developed and refined. –Shift to winning electoral support –Development of propaganda tools. While in prison, he wrote Mein Kampf: “My Struggle” (published in 1925)
Hitler’s Beliefs Nationalism - He wanted to unite all German-speaking people under one Empire He wanted racial purity – “inferior” races such as Jews, Slavs and all non-whites were to form a work force for the “master race” – blond, blue-eyed “Aryans”
Lebensraum Hitler believed that for Germany to thrive it needed more land at the expense of her neighbors Hitler called it “Lebensraum” or living space
Economic Instability Unemployment Inflation Jan. 1918 Jan. 1919 Jan. 1920 Jan. 1921 Jan. 1922 April 1922 July 1922 Oct. 1922 Jan. 1923 Feb. 1923 5.21 8.20 64.80 64.91 191.81 291.00 493.22 3,180.96 17,972.00 27,918.00 Mar. 1923 Apr. 1923 May 1923 June 1923 July 1923 Aug. 1923 Sept. 1923 Oct. 1923 Nov. 1923 Dec. 1923 21,190.00 24,475.00 47,670.00 109,966.00 353,412.00 4,620,455.00 98,860,000.00 25,260,000,000.00 2,193,600,000,000.00 4,200,000,000,000.00 Exchange rates, US Dollar to Mark, 1918-1923
Ruhr Crisis Loss of Territory –Lost 13.1% of its territory and 10% of its population –These territories were rich in agricultural and mineral resources Reparations: Allies announced in 1921 Germany had to pay almost $34 billion Germany's economy weak and it could not pay all the reparations. 1923, France occupied industrial Ruhr region of Germany.
Ruhr Crisis German government ordered Ruhr people to stop working & passively resist French occupation. Runaway inflation occurred when Germany printed money to pay reparations Brought about social revolution in Germany: Accumulated savings of many retired and middle-class people were wiped out; middle- class resented gov't; blamed Western gov't, big business, workers, Jews, and communists for nation's woes
Dawes Plan 1924 Restructured Germany's debt with U.S. loans to Germany to pay back Britain and France, who likewise paid back U.S.; resulted in German economic recovery
1924-1929 – Growing Support Focus on traditional values Built fear of Left Wing groups Continued use of military imagery Lack of electoral support due to prosperity in Germany at the time May 1928 election: Nazis get 2.6% national vote
1929-1932 - A Change in Fortunes Wall Street Stock Market Crash led to end of financial assistance from USA Unemployment rose rapidly Hyperinflation Threat of Communism increased Government failed to address problems successfully Depression after the Wall Street Crash made more people vote for the Nazis.
How did the Nazis Gain Support? Military uniforms demonstrated strength when the government was weak –SA – paramilitary unit of Nazi party –SS – elite group within the SA Use of force against communists and Trade unions was popular with businesses. Rhetoric was employed as reminders of ‘Who was to blame’ for the economic crisis built support.
Nazi Propaganda The Nazi’s quickly recognized the value of the media. From the early days of the party they used aggressive advertising to promote the Nazi ideology Joseph Goebbels was in charge of ‘enlightening’ the German public
Propaganda The essence of propaganda consists in winning people over to an idea so sincerely, so vitally, that in the end they succumb to it utterly and can never escape from it. Joseph Goebbels The receptive powers of the masses are very restricted, and their understanding is feeble. On the other hand, they quickly forget. Such being the case, all effective propaganda must be confined to a few bare necessities and then must be expressed in a few stereotyped formulas. Hitler, Mein Kampf
Weimar Republic Democratic Government established in Germany following World War I Was a multiple party system, based on “Proportional Representation” Each part was allowed representation based on the amount of support it won in elections. This system allowed Nazis to gain control of the government.
Hitler Gained a Following Hitler’s ability as a public speaker and organizer drew many followers He quickly became the Nazi Party leader He promised to return Germany to its old glory
Hitler rose to power in part by criticizing the Versailles Treaty as unfair and humiliating to the proud German nation
Hitler Appointed Chancellor By mid-1932, the Nazis had become the strongest political party in Germany In January of 1933, Hitler was appointed Chancellor Once in office he quickly dismantled Germany’s democratic Weimar Republic and replaced it with a totalitarian government Hitler was appointed chancellor by the aging President Hindenburg of the Weimar Republic
Reichstag Fire (February 1933) A communist was found inside the building. Hitler convinced people that Communists were trying to take power by terrorism Communist Party banned from the Reichstag
The Enabling Act (March 1933) Hitler can rule Germany for four years No need to consult Reichstag
The Night of the Long Knives Hitler had to get control of the German Army (SA) – A threat. June 30, 1934 - Hitler’s S.S. killed over 1000 SA members including Ernst Roehm. Hitler had gained the support of the army.
Death of Hindenburg (August 1934) Hitler combined positions of President and Chancellor Der Führer Third Reich Oath of Loyalty: Every soldier swore a personal oath of loyalty to Hitler: "I swear by God this sacred oath that I shall render unconditional obedience to Adolf Hitler, der Führer of the German Reich, supreme commander of the armed forces, and that I shall at all times be prepared, as a brave soldier, to give my life for this oath."
DEATH OF PRESIDENT HINDENBURG HITLER BECAME CHANCELLOR THE REICHSTAG FIRE THE ENABLING ACT THE NIGHT OF THE LONG KNIVES OATH OF LOYALTY TO HITLER DER FÜHRER
“Terror is the best political weapon, for nothing drives people harder than a fear of sudden death.”
How did Hitler keep control of Germany? Keeping Control of Germany Everyone was scared of being arrested by the Gestapo and being put in a concentration camp. Hitler Youth & the Young Maidens. Propaganda Mass Rallies, Posters and Propaganda films. The Nazis controlled and censored the radio & newspapers. School children were indoctrinated with Nazi ideas at school. The Terror State Secret police called the Gestapo would spy on and arrest enemies of the state. SS were responsible for running the concentration camps. Popularity Creating Jobs Ripping up the Treaty of Versailles.
The Terror State Both the Gestapo and the SS were run by Heinrich Himmler. The Gestapo employed an army of spies who would inform on people.
Enemies of the Nazi State Jews Communists Social Democrats Trade Unions Work Shy (Lazy) Homosexuals Gypsies Germans who bought from Jews Pacifists Radical Christian Organization Anyone who criticized Hitler or the Nazi Party.
Newspapers 1933 - 4,700 daily newspapers, 3% controlled by Nazi Party 1944 - 997 daily newspapers, 82% controlled by Nazi Party Censoring newspapers ensured that only the news you want people to read is available to the public Nazi party members wrote many articles for the press, ensuring that the message was always positive Many publications were banned
On April 7, 1933 Hitler ordered all non-Aryans removed from government jobs Thus began the systematic campaign of racial purification that eventually led to the Holocaust – the murder of 11 million people across Europe (more than half of whom were Jews ) Title: “Away with him” The long arm of the Ministry of Education pulls a Jewish teacher from his classroom. April 1933 (Der Sturmer Issue #12)
Use of Schools Syllabus & textbooks changed to reflect Nazi ideas on race & German history Compulsory membership of German Teacher’s League
PERIODS MondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFridaySaturday 1. 8:00-8:45 German 2. 8:50-9:35 GeographyHistorySingingGeographyHistorySinging 3. 9:40-10:25 Race Study Party Beliefs 4. 1025:11:00 Break – with sports and special announcements. 5. 11:00-12:05 Domestic Science with Mathematics – Every day. 6. 12:10-12:55 The science of breeding (Eugenics) – Health Biology. 2:00-6:00 Sport each day. 1935 Schedule for a Girls’ School in Nazi Germany
The Law for the Encouragement of Marriage gave newly-wed couples a loan of 1000 marks, and allowed them to keep 250 marks for each child they had. Mothers who had more than 8 children were given a gold medal.
In 1934 the Ten Commandments for the choice of a spouse were compiled. They included: 1. Remember that you are a German. 2. If you are genetically healthy you should not remain unmarried. 3. Keep your body pure. 4. You should keep your mind and spirit pure. 5. As a German choose only a spouse of the same or Nordic blood. 6. In choosing a spouse ask about his ancestors. 7. Health is also a precondition for physical beauty. 8. Marry only for love. 9. Don't look for a playmate but for a companion for marriage. 10. You should want to have as many children as possible.
Nuremberg Laws 1935 Deprived German Jews of their rights of citizenship, giving them the status of "subjects" in Hitler's Reich. –The laws also made it forbidden for Jews to marry or have sexual relations with Aryans. The Nuremberg Laws had the unexpected result of causing confusion and heated debate over who was a "full Jew." –The Nazis settled on defining a "full Jew" as a person with three Jewish grandparents. Those with less were designated as Mischlinge. The Nuremberg Laws were unique in classifying Jews, not as a religion or culture, but as a race. This meant that even non-practicing Jews or Jews who had converted to Christianity could be defined as Jews.
Supplemental Laws Jews must carry ID cards and Jewish passports are marked with a “J” Jews may no longer own or bear arms Jews may no longer own businesses Jews may no longer attend plays, concerts, etc. All Jewish children are moved to Jewish schools All Jewish businesses are shut down Jews may no longer be in certain places at certain times Jews must hand over driver’s licenses and car registrations Jews must sell their businesses and hand over securities and jewels Jews may no longer attend universities
Jews forced to wear bright yellow stars to identify themselves
Euthanasia Program Part of the Nuremberg Laws were laws to promote a genetically “healthy” Germany. The ‘simple minded,’ retarded, mentally ill, deformed and other ‘defectives’ were to be sterilized to prevent their reproducing. Eventually this extended itself to the Euthanasia program which killed such people. Usually they went in for a tonsillectomy or some such surgery and “died” during surgery.
KRISTALLNACHT (NIGHT OF BROKEN GLASS) On November 9-10, 1938 Nazi Storm Troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses and synagogues across Germany Over 100 Jews were killed, hundreds more were injured, and 30,000 Jews arrested Afterward, the Nazis blamed the Jews for the destruction