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The Rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazism

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1 The Rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazism

2 The Life of Adolf Hitler
His Early Years The development of his racial attitudes His World War I experience After the war, moved to Munich in Bavaria

3 The Life of Adolf Hitler
In 1919, he joined a struggling group called the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis) Failure of Munich Beer-Hall Putsch (November 9, 1923) demonstrated that power must be taken through legal means.

4 Imprisonment While in prison, Hitler analyzed the party’s strategy
Political strategies developed and refined. Shift to winning electoral support Development of propaganda tools. While in prison, he wrote Mein Kampf: “My Struggle” (published in 1925)

5 Hitler’s Beliefs Nationalism - He wanted to unite all German-speaking people under one Empire He wanted racial purity – “inferior” races such as Jews, Slavs and all non-whites were to form a work force for the “master race” – blond, blue-eyed “Aryans”

6 Lebensraum Hitler believed that for Germany to thrive it needed more land at the expense of her neighbors Hitler called it “Lebensraum” or living space

7 Exchange rates, US Dollar to Mark, 1918-1923
Economic Instability Unemployment Inflation Exchange rates, US Dollar to Mark, Jan Jan Jan Jan Jan April July Oct Jan Feb. 1923 , , ,918.00 Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec. 1923 21, , , , , ,620, ,860, ,260,000, ,193,600,000, ,200,000,000,000.00

8 Ruhr Crisis Loss of Territory
Lost 13.1% of its territory and 10% of its population These territories were rich in agricultural and mineral resources Reparations: Allies announced in 1921 Germany had to pay almost $34 billion Germany's economy weak and it could not pay all the reparations. 1923, France occupied industrial Ruhr region of Germany.

9 Ruhr Crisis German government ordered Ruhr people to stop working & passively resist French occupation. Runaway inflation occurred when Germany printed money to pay reparations Brought about social revolution in Germany: Accumulated savings of many retired and middle-class people were wiped out; middle-class resented gov't; blamed Western gov't, big business, workers, Jews, and communists for nation's woes

10 Dawes Plan 1924 Restructured Germany's debt with U.S. loans to Germany to pay back Britain and France, who likewise paid back U.S.; resulted in German economic recovery

11 1924-1929 – Growing Support Focus on traditional values
Built fear of Left Wing groups Continued use of military imagery Lack of electoral support due to prosperity in Germany at the time May 1928 election: Nazis get 2.6% national vote

12 A Change in Fortunes Wall Street Stock Market Crash led to end of financial assistance from USA Unemployment rose rapidly Hyperinflation Threat of Communism increased Government failed to address problems successfully Depression after the Wall Street Crash made more people vote for the Nazis.

13 The Wall Street Crash 1929

14 How did the Nazis Gain Support?
Military uniforms demonstrated strength when the government was weak SA – paramilitary unit of Nazi party SS – elite group within the SA Use of force against communists and Trade unions was popular with businesses. Rhetoric was employed as reminders of ‘Who was to blame’ for the economic crisis built support.

15 Nazi Propaganda The Nazi’s quickly recognized the value of the media. From the early days of the party they used aggressive advertising to promote the Nazi ideology Joseph Goebbels was in charge of ‘enlightening’ the German public

16 Propaganda The essence of propaganda consists in winning people over to an idea so sincerely, so vitally, that in the end they succumb to it utterly and can never escape from it. Joseph Goebbels The receptive powers of the masses are very restricted, and their understanding is feeble. On the other hand, they quickly forget. Such being the case, all effective propaganda must be confined to a few bare necessities and then must be expressed in a few stereotyped formulas. Hitler, Mein Kampf




20 Weimar Republic Democratic Government established in Germany following World War I Was a multiple party system, based on “Proportional Representation” Each part was allowed representation based on the amount of support it won in elections. This system allowed Nazis to gain control of the government.


22 Hitler Gained a Following
Hitler’s ability as a public speaker and organizer drew many followers He quickly became the Nazi Party leader He promised to return Germany to its old glory

23 Hitler rose to power in part by criticizing the Versailles Treaty as unfair and humiliating to the proud German nation

24 Hitler Appointed Chancellor
By mid-1932, the Nazis had become the strongest political party in Germany In January of 1933, Hitler was appointed Chancellor Once in office he quickly dismantled Germany’s democratic Weimar Republic and replaced it with a totalitarian government Hitler was appointed chancellor by the aging President Hindenburg of the Weimar Republic

25 Reichstag Fire (February 1933)
A communist was found inside the building. Hitler convinced people that Communists were trying to take power by terrorism Communist Party banned from the Reichstag

26 The Enabling Act (March 1933)
Hitler can rule Germany for four years No need to consult Reichstag

27 The Night of the Long Knives
Hitler had to get control of the German Army (SA) – A threat. June 30, Hitler’s S.S. killed over 1000 SA members including Ernst Roehm. Hitler had gained the support of the army.

28 Death of Hindenburg (August 1934)
Hitler combined positions of President and Chancellor Der Führer Third Reich Oath of Loyalty: Every soldier swore a personal oath of loyalty to Hitler: "I swear by God this sacred oath that I shall render unconditional obedience to Adolf Hitler, der Führer of the German Reich, supreme commander of the armed forces, and that I shall at all times be prepared, as a brave soldier, to give my life for this oath."



31 Keeping Control: Terror State
Nazi Germany Keeping Control: Terror State

32 “Terror is the best political weapon, for nothing drives people harder than a fear of sudden death.”

33 How did Hitler keep control of Germany?
The Terror State Propaganda Secret police called the Gestapo would spy on and arrest enemies of the state. Mass Rallies, Posters and Propaganda films. Keeping Control of Germany The Nazis controlled and censored the radio & newspapers. SS were responsible for running the concentration camps. School children were indoctrinated with Nazi ideas at school. Popularity Everyone was scared of being arrested by the Gestapo and being put in a concentration camp. Ripping up the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler Youth & the Young Maidens. Creating Jobs

34 The Terror State Both the Gestapo and the SS were run by Heinrich Himmler. The Gestapo employed an army of spies who would inform on people.

35 Enemies of the Nazi State
Jews Communists Social Democrats Trade Unions Work Shy (Lazy) Homosexuals Gypsies Germans who bought from Jews Pacifists Radical Christian Organization Anyone who criticized Hitler or the Nazi Party.

36 Propaganda

37 Radio Between the number of families with radios rose from 25% to 70% Hitler is considered to have been one of the greatest public speakers of all time.

38 Film: The Triumph of the Will
Film was used to show Hitler in a positive light as often as possible.



41 Newspapers 1933 - 4,700 daily newspapers, 3% controlled by Nazi Party
Censoring newspapers ensured that only the news you want people to read is available to the public Nazi party members wrote many articles for the press, ensuring that the message was always positive Many publications were banned

42 Germany Under the Nazis

43 On April 7, 1933 Hitler ordered all non-Aryans removed from government jobs
Thus began the systematic campaign of racial purification that eventually led to the Holocaust – the murder of 11 million people across Europe (more than half of whom were Jews) Title: “Away with him” The long arm of the Ministry of Education pulls a Jewish teacher from his classroom. April 1933 (Der Sturmer Issue #12)

44 Use of Schools Syllabus & textbooks changed to reflect Nazi ideas on race & German history Compulsory membership of German Teacher’s League


46 1935 Schedule for a Girls’ School in Nazi Germany
PERIODS Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday 1. 8:00-8:45 German 2. 8:50-9:35 Geography History Singing 3. 9:40-10:25 Race Study Party Beliefs :11:00 Break – with sports and special announcements. 5. 11:00-12:05 Domestic Science with Mathematics – Every day. 6. 12:10-12:55 The science of breeding (Eugenics) – Health Biology. 2:00-6:00 Sport each day.

47 Boycott of Jewish Businesses
April 1933

48 "Where they have burned books, they will end in burning human beings
"Where they have burned books, they will end in burning human beings." Heinrich Heine Book Burning





53 Nuremberg Rallies

54 The Law for the Encouragement of Marriage gave newly-wed couples a loan of 1000 marks, and allowed them to keep 250 marks for each child they had.   Mothers who had more than 8 children were given a gold medal.

55 In 1934 the Ten Commandments for the choice of a spouse were compiled
In 1934 the Ten Commandments for the choice of a spouse were compiled. They included: 1. Remember that you are a German. 2. If you are genetically healthy you should not remain unmarried. 3. Keep your body pure. 4. You should keep your mind and spirit pure. 5. As a German choose only a spouse of the same or Nordic blood. 6. In choosing a spouse ask about his ancestors. 7. Health is also a precondition for physical beauty. 8. Marry only for love. 9. Don't look for a playmate but for a companion for marriage You should want to have as many children as possible.

56 Hitler Youth




60 Nuremberg Laws 1935 Deprived German Jews of their rights of citizenship, giving them the status of "subjects" in Hitler's Reich. The laws also made it forbidden for Jews to marry or have sexual relations with Aryans. The Nuremberg Laws had the unexpected result of causing confusion and heated debate over who was a "full Jew." The Nazis settled on defining a "full Jew" as a person with three Jewish grandparents. Those with less were designated as Mischlinge. The Nuremberg Laws were unique in classifying Jews, not as a religion or culture, but as a race. This meant that even non-practicing Jews or Jews who had converted to Christianity could be defined as Jews.

61 Supplemental Laws Jews must carry ID cards and Jewish passports are marked with a “J” Jews may no longer own or bear arms Jews may no longer own businesses Jews may no longer attend plays, concerts, etc. All Jewish children are moved to Jewish schools All Jewish businesses are shut down Jews may no longer be in certain places at certain times Jews must hand over driver’s licenses and car registrations Jews must sell their businesses and hand over securities and jewels Jews may no longer attend universities

62 Jews forced to wear bright yellow stars to identify themselves

63 Euthanasia Program Part of the Nuremberg Laws were laws to promote a genetically “healthy” Germany. The ‘simple minded,’ retarded, mentally ill, deformed and other ‘defectives’ were to be sterilized to prevent their reproducing. Eventually this extended itself to the Euthanasia program which killed such people. Usually they went in for a tonsillectomy or some such surgery and “died” during surgery.

64 Olympics 1936

On November 9-10, 1938 Nazi Storm Troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses and synagogues across Germany Over 100 Jews were killed, hundreds more were injured, and 30,000 Jews arrested Afterward, the Nazis blamed the Jews for the destruction





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