2The Life of Adolf Hitler His Early YearsThe development of his racial attitudesHis World War I experienceAfter the war, moved to Munich in Bavaria
3The Life of Adolf Hitler In 1919, he joined a struggling group called the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis)Failure of Munich Beer-Hall Putsch (November 9, 1923) demonstrated that power must be taken through legal means.
4Imprisonment While in prison, Hitler analyzed the party’s strategy Political strategies developed and refined.Shift to winning electoral supportDevelopment of propaganda tools.While in prison, he wrote Mein Kampf: “My Struggle” (published in 1925)
5Hitler’s BeliefsNationalism - He wanted to unite all German-speaking people under one EmpireHe wanted racial purity – “inferior” races such as Jews, Slavs and all non-whites were to form a work force for the “master race” – blond, blue-eyed “Aryans”
6LebensraumHitler believed that for Germany to thrive it needed more land at the expense of her neighborsHitler called it “Lebensraum” or living space
7Exchange rates, US Dollar to Mark, 1918-1923 Economic InstabilityUnemploymentInflationExchange rates, US Dollar to Mark,Jan Jan Jan Jan Jan April July Oct Jan Feb. 1923, , ,918.00Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec. 192321, , , , , ,620, ,860, ,260,000, ,193,600,000, ,200,000,000,000.00
8Ruhr Crisis Loss of Territory Lost 13.1% of its territory and 10% of its populationThese territories were rich in agricultural and mineral resourcesReparations: Allies announced in 1921 Germany had to pay almost $34 billionGermany's economy weak and it could not pay all the reparations.1923, France occupied industrial Ruhr region of Germany.
9Ruhr CrisisGerman government ordered Ruhr people to stop working & passively resist French occupation.Runaway inflation occurred when Germany printed money to pay reparationsBrought about social revolution in Germany: Accumulated savings of many retired and middle-class people were wiped out; middle-class resented gov't; blamed Western gov't, big business, workers, Jews, and communists for nation's woes
10Dawes Plan 1924Restructured Germany's debt with U.S. loans to Germany to pay back Britain and France, who likewise paid back U.S.; resulted in German economic recovery
111924-1929 – Growing Support Focus on traditional values Built fear of Left Wing groupsContinued use of military imageryLack of electoral support due to prosperity in Germany at the timeMay 1928 election: Nazis get 2.6% national vote
12A Change in FortunesWall Street Stock Market Crash led to end of financial assistance from USAUnemployment rose rapidlyHyperinflationThreat of Communism increasedGovernment failed to address problems successfullyDepression after the Wall Street Crash made more people vote for the Nazis.
14How did the Nazis Gain Support? Military uniforms demonstrated strength when the government was weakSA – paramilitary unit of Nazi partySS – elite group within the SAUse of force against communists and Trade unions was popular with businesses.Rhetoric was employed as reminders of ‘Who was to blame’ for the economic crisis built support.
15Nazi PropagandaThe Nazi’s quickly recognized the value of the media. From the early days of the party they used aggressive advertising to promote the Nazi ideologyJoseph Goebbels was in charge of ‘enlightening’ the German public
16PropagandaThe essence of propaganda consists in winning people over to an idea so sincerely, so vitally, that in the end they succumb to it utterly and can never escape from it.Joseph GoebbelsThe receptive powers of the masses are very restricted, and their understanding is feeble. On the other hand, they quickly forget. Such being the case, all effective propaganda must be confined to a few bare necessities and then must be expressed in a few stereotyped formulas.Hitler, Mein Kampf
20Weimar RepublicDemocratic Government established in Germany following World War IWas a multiple party system, based on “Proportional Representation”Each part was allowed representation based on the amount of support it won in elections.This system allowed Nazis to gain control of the government.
22Hitler Gained a Following Hitler’s ability as a public speaker and organizer drew many followersHe quickly became the Nazi Party leaderHe promised to return Germany to its old glory
23Hitler rose to power in part by criticizing the Versailles Treaty as unfair and humiliating to the proud German nation
24Hitler Appointed Chancellor By mid-1932, the Nazis had become the strongest political party in GermanyIn January of 1933, Hitler was appointed ChancellorOnce in office he quickly dismantled Germany’s democratic Weimar Republic and replaced it with a totalitarian governmentHitler was appointed chancellor by the aging President Hindenburg of the Weimar Republic
25Reichstag Fire (February 1933) A communist was found inside the building.Hitler convinced people that Communists were trying to take power by terrorismCommunist Party banned from the Reichstag
26The Enabling Act (March 1933) Hitler can rule Germany for four yearsNo need to consult Reichstag
27The Night of the Long Knives Hitler had to get control of the German Army (SA) – A threat.June 30, Hitler’s S.S. killed over 1000 SA members including Ernst Roehm.Hitler had gained the support of the army.
28Death of Hindenburg (August 1934) Hitler combined positions of President and ChancellorDer FührerThird ReichOath of Loyalty: Every soldier swore a personal oath of loyalty to Hitler:"I swear by God this sacred oath that I shall render unconditional obedience to Adolf Hitler, der Führer of the German Reich, supreme commander of the armed forces, and that I shall at all times be prepared, as a brave soldier, to give my life for this oath."
31Keeping Control: Terror State Nazi GermanyKeeping Control:Terror State
32“Terror is the best political weapon, for nothing drives people harder than a fear of sudden death.”
33How did Hitler keep control of Germany? The Terror StatePropagandaSecret police called the Gestapo would spy on and arrest enemies of the state.Mass Rallies, Posters and Propaganda films.Keeping Control of GermanyThe Nazis controlled and censored the radio & newspapers.SS were responsible for running the concentration camps.School children were indoctrinated with Nazi ideas at school.PopularityEveryone was scared of being arrested by the Gestapo and being put in a concentration camp.Ripping up the Treaty of Versailles.Hitler Youth & the Young Maidens.Creating Jobs
34The Terror StateBoth the Gestapo and the SS were run by Heinrich Himmler.The Gestapo employed an army of spies who would inform on people.
35Enemies of the Nazi State JewsCommunistsSocial DemocratsTrade UnionsWork Shy (Lazy)HomosexualsGypsiesGermans who bought from JewsPacifistsRadical Christian OrganizationAnyone who criticized Hitler or the Nazi Party.
41Newspapers 1933 - 4,700 daily newspapers, 3% controlled by Nazi Party Censoring newspapers ensured that only the news you want people to read is available to the publicNazi party members wrote many articles for the press, ensuring that the message was always positiveMany publications were banned
43On April 7, 1933 Hitler ordered all non-Aryans removed from government jobs Thus began the systematic campaign of racial purification that eventually led to the Holocaust – the murder of 11 million people across Europe (more than half of whom were Jews)Title: “Away with him” The long arm of the Ministry of Education pulls a Jewish teacher from his classroom.April 1933 (Der Sturmer Issue #12)
44Use of SchoolsSyllabus & textbooks changed to reflect Nazi ideas on race & German historyCompulsory membership of German Teacher’s League
461935 Schedule for a Girls’ School in Nazi Germany PERIODSMondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFridaySaturday1. 8:00-8:45German2. 8:50-9:35GeographyHistorySinging3. 9:40-10:25Race StudyParty Beliefs:11:00Break – with sports and special announcements.5. 11:00-12:05Domestic Science with Mathematics – Every day.6. 12:10-12:55The science of breeding (Eugenics) – Health Biology.2:00-6:00 Sport each day.
54The Law for the Encouragement of Marriage gave newly-wed couples a loan of 1000 marks, and allowed them to keep 250 marks for each child they had. Mothers who had more than 8 children were given a gold medal.
55In 1934 the Ten Commandments for the choice of a spouse were compiled In 1934 the Ten Commandments for the choice of a spouse were compiled. They included:1. Remember that you are a German. 2. If you are genetically healthy you should not remain unmarried. 3. Keep your body pure. 4. You should keep your mind and spirit pure. 5. As a German choose only a spouse of the same or Nordic blood. 6. In choosing a spouse ask about his ancestors. 7. Health is also a precondition for physical beauty. 8. Marry only for love. 9. Don't look for a playmate but for a companion for marriage You should want to have as many children as possible.
60Nuremberg Laws 1935Deprived German Jews of their rights of citizenship, giving them the status of "subjects" in Hitler's Reich.The laws also made it forbidden for Jews to marry or have sexual relations with Aryans.The Nuremberg Laws had the unexpected result of causing confusion and heated debate over who was a "full Jew."The Nazis settled on defining a "full Jew" as a person with three Jewish grandparents. Those with less were designated as Mischlinge.The Nuremberg Laws were unique in classifying Jews, not as a religion or culture, but as a race. This meant that even non-practicing Jews or Jews who had converted to Christianity could be defined as Jews.
61Supplemental LawsJews must carry ID cards and Jewish passports are marked with a “J”Jews may no longer own or bear armsJews may no longer own businessesJews may no longer attend plays, concerts, etc.All Jewish children are moved to Jewish schoolsAll Jewish businesses are shut downJews may no longer be in certain places at certain timesJews must hand over driver’s licenses and car registrationsJews must sell their businesses and hand over securities and jewelsJews may no longer attend universities
62Jews forced to wear bright yellow stars to identify themselves
63Euthanasia ProgramPart of the Nuremberg Laws were laws to promote a genetically “healthy” Germany.The ‘simple minded,’ retarded, mentally ill, deformed and other ‘defectives’ were to be sterilized to prevent their reproducing.Eventually this extended itself to the Euthanasia program which killed such people. Usually they went in for a tonsillectomy or some such surgery and “died” during surgery.
65KRISTALLNACHT (NIGHT OF BROKEN GLASS) On November 9-10, 1938 Nazi Storm Troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses and synagogues across GermanyOver 100 Jews were killed, hundreds more were injured, and 30,000 Jews arrestedAfterward, the Nazis blamed the Jews for the destruction