2 Hitler’s Rise to PowerWorld War I ( ) is a disaster for GermanyThey enter the war as the strongest nation in the world; at the end they lose everything.Germans though the war was lost due to internal treason because the government hid the truth about the war.80% of all men in Germany between the ages of were killed, maimed, or “shell-shocked” during WWI
3 Treaty of VersaillesTreaty of Versailles- the peace treaty that ends WWILimit army- German army can not have more than 100,000 men.No manufacture of items needed for war (tanks, guns, etc.)Germany must make reparation payments.
4 Results of TreatyGermans hated this treaty because it blamed Germany for WWI.Treaty resulted in anger, revolts, and Germany felt humiliated
5 Postwar Conditions in Germany High InflationUnemploymentGreat political unrest and riotingJewish people were blamed for Treaty of Versailles (scapegoats)
6 Adolf Hitler Born April 20,1889 in Austria Austrians speak German Not a German citizen until 1930Dropped out of school at age 16Wants to be an artist-fails entry exam at Vienna Academy of Fine Arts
7 Adolf Hitler Did not hold a permanent job Joined German army in WWI and served as a message runner (a dangerous position)Wounded twice during the warReached rank of corporal
8 1919 National Socialist German Workers Party = NAZI Anti-democratic Racist against JewsNationalistic- believe their country is the bestNazi party was formed by 7 members who met in beer halls1920-Hitler joins to find meaning in his life
9 1924 Beer Hall Putsch (takeover) Met in beer hall, planned armed rebellion to take over Germany and put in their own presidentHitler goes to prison for treason for 5 yearsUsed the publicity of the trial to preach Nazi ideas and compromises
10 Mein KampfWhile in prison Hitler writes Mein Kampf, or “my struggle,” about his life and Nazi philosophyIntroduces the idea of a master raceSells millions of copiesBy 1933 it outsells all books except the BibleDecember 20- Yuletide Amnesty- all prisoners set freeHitler only serves 10 months of a 5 year term
11 1925-1929 1925- only 27,000 dues-paying members in Nazi party times that number even though government banned the party because of Beer Hall Putsch1929-Great Depression in USA caused depression in Germany1930: 30% of Germans unemployed20% of Germans under-employedHitler tells people they were betrayed by Jewish bankers and moneylendersThe Depression was the single greatest reason for Hitler’s rise to powerHitler set up soup kitchens, hired his own troops, and bought a national newspaper
12 1933January 20- Hitler is elected Chancellor (vice-president) of Germany under HindenburgTears up the Treaty of VersaillesFebruary 27- Reichstag Fire-claims Communists are attacking the governmentMarch 24- Enabling Act- gave Hitler legal dictatorship; allows him to pass laws without legislaturePeople lose freedom of speech, press, and civil rights; can only agree with Nazi ideas
13 1933 Ignores Treaty of Versailles Hitler creates jobs and brings people out of the depressionBecause he is able to restore the economy, people love himDachau- builds first concentration camp for political prisoners (people who break Nazi laws)Begins removing rights: people need to register as Jews, boycott of Jewish shops
14 1934August 2- President Paul von Hindenburg dies; Hitler takes over powers of presidencyOffice of presidency is now eliminated; Hitler becomes dictator of GermanyArmy swears allegiance to himGermany is now a police stateBegins murdering mentally challenged and the ill
15 Nuremberg LawsNuremberg Laws- laws of race and citizenship against the JewsNo Jew could be a citizenNo Jew could marry a non-JewNo Jew could hold position or job in military, universities, or governmentNot welcome to see doctors or lawyers
16 1937Hitler goes to warHitler invades Austria on basis that all German-speaking countries were one country.Hitler’s expansion could have stopped at this point if Britain, France, and the USA had intervened because Hitler did not have the military power to pull it off.
17 1938(July) Evian Conference- 42 countries met abut Jewish immigrants. They waited for the U.S. to decide to take Jews in- only 26,000 Jews were allowed in.November 7= Kristallnacht ( Night of Broken Glass)An organized pogrom against Jews (mass violence, homes and businesses destroyed, synagogues destroyed, Jews beaten)Turning point in the extermination of the Jews
21 1939Jews were forced to carry ID cards, they were rounded up and sent to ghettosWorld War II beginsGermany and Russia sign a non-aggression pact- they will divide Poland between themInvade Poland, which has a large Jewish population and no armyHitler issues sterilization
22 1939 Basis for “Final Solution” begins Practiced gassing in vans- people learned to be desensitized to this type of killing and were brain-washed into believing they were doing the right thingHitler called this a “scientifically clean, productive way of killing”Targeted victims included political leaders and religious leaders of opposing groups
23 1940 “Final Solution” Hitler conquers Holland, Belgium, and France “Final Solution” begins to get rid of all JewsConcentration camps were created (considered labor camps as opposed to death camps, but food and living conditions were inhumane and people, of course, did die6 specific death camps created- all in Poland, did not want them in Germany because of task of burying the dead, too much bloodshed, and growing of new crops might be affected
25 Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 Day of Infamy Japanese attack Pearl HarborLasts 10 minutes 7:55-8:05 amDecember 7- USA declares war on JapanDecember 11- US declares war on Germany
26 Wannsee Conference January 20, 1942 Meeting between the SS and the German government agenciesCome up with “Final Solution” to murder 11 million Jews, even in non-occupied countries of Ireland, Sweden, Turkey, and Great BritainPlan to murder them all in death camps
27 D-DayJune 6, 1944USA and Allies land in Europe on Normandy Beach (France)Known as D-DayMajor step in the defeat of the Axis powers
28 1945Hitler and close officers had been holed up in underground bunkers in BerlinApril 30- Hitler and Eva Braun commit suicide together- bodies burned to prevent recognitionHitler was 56Russians secretly had bodies exhumed
29 VE DayMay 7- VE day- Victory in Europe- when Germany surrendered and WWII ended in Europe!August 6 and 9- USA drops the first atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in JapanAugust 14- Japan surrenders and WAR IS OVER!!!!