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World War II World History Chapter 30. Setting the stage  All countries were being affected by the depression  U.S., France, and U.K. already had control.

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Presentation on theme: "World War II World History Chapter 30. Setting the stage  All countries were being affected by the depression  U.S., France, and U.K. already had control."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War II World History Chapter 30

2 Setting the stage  All countries were being affected by the depression  U.S., France, and U.K. already had control of territory with natural resources  Japan, Italy, and Germany wanted the same:  Germans wanted “lebensraum” or living space from countries in the east  Italy’s fascist leader, Benito Mussolini (and his thugs called “Brown Shirts”) wanted to control the Mediterranean Sea to build a new Roman empire  Japan wanted to control China  Many supported these dictators because of the “Red Scare” or the fear of the spread of communism  Rumors of Joseph Stalin (the leader of Russia) had put to death nearly 45 million Soviet citizens by secret police scared people, too

3 Mussolini and Hitler Stalin

4 Japan  Japan wanted the territory called Manchuria to be used as a buffer between them and communist Korea  Because of a Chinese civil war, Japan easily conquered the territory and called it Manchukuo  Japan’s invasion was condemned:  First, by U.S. isolationists  Passed the Stimson Doctrine which denied recognition of any territory taken by force  League of Nations: passed a resolution calling for Japan to withdrawal  Instead, Japan withdrew from the League and the world did nothing…Germany and Italy watched with glee

5 Japan in Manchuria

6 Hitler  Adolph Hitler – born in 1889 in Austrian border town near Germany  Full of bigotry and convinced that Jews were corrupting the world  After WWI, he joined a small group that was against capitalism and communism and was hostile towards Jews  By 1930, this small party became much larger and known as the Nationalist Socialist German Worker’s Party (Nazis)  Gave inspiring speeches about uniting the Aryan race and regaining Germany’s lost territory in WWI

7 Adolph Hitler Himmler Goebbels Hitler’s Top Advisors

8 NAZI Rally

9 Hitler Part Two  Hitler planned on committing genocide (or killing a whole national or ethnic group) against Jews, Gypsies, and homosexuals  Spread anti-Semitism (Jewish hatred) and blamed the Jews for Germany’s woes  Hitler consolidated all power in the country (called it the Third Reich) and when President Hindenburg died, Hitler declared himself füehrer (means “leader”)  Hitler committed atrocities – brutal crimes of war  Hitler used veterans as bodyguards and thugs to arrest political prisoners

10 Hitler’s Book and Public Speeches

11 Germany and the Olympics  In 1936, Germany hosted the summer Olympics  Hitler thought it would be a good way to show German resurgence in the world  Hitler wanted to show “superiority” of the Aryan race  Jesse Owens, an African-American, spoiled it, however when he won 4 gold medals  Hitler shook hands with the runner-up only: a German named Luz Long

12 Jesse Owens accepting his gold medal for the long jump..second place was Long

13 And it begins…  Kristallnacht:  In 1938, Jews in Germany received a night of terror called the Kristallnacht  Means “Night of broken glass”  Nazi gangs broke into Jewish homes, beat up the occupants, burned synagogues, and looted Jewish businesses  Rhineland:  Used as a buffer between Germany and France and according to the treaty of WWI, no one was to occupy it  Hitler retakes the Rhineland  Then, he takes Austria

14 Kristallnacht

15 A reaction  The U.S., the U.K. and France begin appeasement – or pacifying Hitler to avoid conflict  Ultimatum – being given two options to a problem  Meanwhile, Mussolini invades Ethiopia to gain his Med. Sea empire  Hitler then demands the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia because it used to belong to Austro- Hungarian Empire  Hitler then wanted Danzig (a port city) to be ceded to Germany  Hitler signs a non-aggression pact with Russia (so as to not have to fight a two front war) and then attacks Poland

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17 Germany aggression  German air force (called Luftwaffe) eliminated Poland’s air force  Germany then seized Denmark and Norway  Germany used planes, tanks, bombing, and firepower (called “blitzkrieg”) – means lightning attack or war  Germany took over France  Germany bombed Britain daily  Germany broke the non-aggression pact with Russia and easily defeated the Soviets  Soviets withdrew, winter set in and Germany put a halt to the pursuits

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19 Japan  Meanwhile, Japan continued its invasion of China  U.S. was the first to respond with more than words: they limited the amount of oil Japan could import from the U.S.  Japan and Germany sign an alliance with Italy (creating the Axis powers)  Japan took Indonesia – The U.S. responded by freezing all Japanese assets  Japan attacks a naval base at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 in Hawaii in response  U.S. joins the war

20 Pearl Harbor

21 Aerial shot of Pearl Harbor

22 U.S. in the war  U.S. joins the Allied forces but is constantly beat down by the Japanese  General Douglas MacArthur – commander of the American forces in the Pacific  78,000 U.S. troops surrendered to the Japanese  The prisoners were forced to march 65 miles  Called the “Bataan Death March” – If you stopped, you were shot  Meanwhile, in Europe, the U.S. invaded Normandy (France) called D-Day  3 million Allied troops staged this massive assault (See VIDEO) VIDEO

23 The Bataan Death March

24 General MacArthur’s return to the Philippines

25 D-Day

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29 The War goes on…  Battle of the Bulge: called this because of the German advances with their tanks but they were bombarded with Allied aircraft and the winter  Soviets pushed from the other side  Roosevelt (US), Churchill (UK), Stalin (USSR) all met at the Yalta Conference and they got Stalin to agree to help with war with Japan  Stalin agrees to fight Japan 3 months after Germany’s defeat  In return, Stalin would get control of all of eastern Europe

30 Battle of the Bulge - New Year's Day Snow & frost-covered Browning.30 caliber LMG, in position near Sourbrodt, Belgium Jan 1, 1944

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32 Atrocities  Holocaust: the name of mass murder on the Jews  Germany kept on fighting, despite losing so many because of Hitler’s propaganda  Many attempts were made to kill Hitler  Nazi death squads killed high ranking officials (German)  Hitler’s Final Solution: was an outright open edict to kill all Jews  Began exterminating all Jews in concentration camps:  6 million Jews died  5 million more died (including Poles, Czechs, Russians, homosexuals, mentally and physically handicapped)  Hitler writes his book “Mein Kampf”  Hitler and his girl (Eva Braun) killed themselves on April 30, 1945 by swallowing cyanide and a gun shot to the head (body is never recovered)  May 8, 1945, Germany surrenders

33 A sign reading “Disinfect and Wash”

34 All prisoners were tattooed

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37 Don’t look if you are squeamish…

38 Now on to Japan…  The war refocuses back on the Pacific  Japan gets beat down at the Battle of Midway  Meanwhile, a scientist from Germany defects to the U.S. named Albert Einstein  They begin working on the Manhattan Project (building an atom bomb)  Japan would not surrender and the U.S. was losing many lives island hopping  Harry S. Truman warned Japan to surrender or face the atom bomb  Japan ignored the warning…

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44 The Final Bomb  August 6, 1945 an American B-29 dropped an atom bomb on the city of Hiroshima killing 60, 000 immediately and another 140,000 from fall out  Truman again asked for another surrender but Japan refused  August 9, 1945 another bomb was dropped on Nagasaki  Stalin joined the fight and forced Japan out of China  Japan surrenders and the war is declared over  WWII got the world and the US out of the depression ($9.6 billion in spending to $95 billion)  In all, somewhere between 50 to 70 million people lost their lives during WWII – See VIDEOVIDEO

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46 STUDY FOR YOUR TEST!!!


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