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 How did the U.S. initially feel about getting involved in World War I?  How might this view impact World War II?  What aspects of the Treaty of Paris.

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Presentation on theme: " How did the U.S. initially feel about getting involved in World War I?  How might this view impact World War II?  What aspects of the Treaty of Paris."— Presentation transcript:


2  How did the U.S. initially feel about getting involved in World War I?  How might this view impact World War II?  What aspects of the Treaty of Paris did Hitler ignore or purposefully violate?

3  Roosevelt condemned the Japanese attacks on China and civilian populations  Believed an informal alliance of peace loving nations was necessary but did not suggest how to quarantine the aggressive ones  Speech was criticized but alerted Americans of the potential threat of Japan

4  France and Britain’s efforts to appease Hitler did not stop Hitler’s expansion  After Hitler took Czechoslovakia into his Reich, Britain and France vowed consequences if he acted again  Britain and France signed an alliance with Poland, guaranteeing aid if Hitler attacks

5  Hitler was more concerned about war with the Soviet Union  He did not want to fight a war on two-fronts  Signed the Nazi-Soviet Nonagression Pact in August 1939  Publically promised not to attack each other  Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939  Launched a massive blitzkrieg (sudden attack) from three directions

6  New style of warfare that emphasizes the use of speed and firepower to penetrate deep into the enemy’s territory  New technologies made it very effective  Coordinated assault by tanks, planes, motorized vehicles, infantry  Germany broke through Poland’s defenses  September 17 the Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east

7  Axis Powers  Germany, Italy, Japan (and others)  Allies  Britain, France  Eventually Soviet Union, U.S., and China  “Phony War”- after the Polish campaign, an 8 month period of relative quiet

8  Spring 1940 Hitler moves West to Norway and Denmark  Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg  Fall almost immediately

9  Prepared for Hitler by creating the Maginot Line  Interconnected series of fortresses located on the border of France and Germany  May 1940 German tanks rolled through the Ardennes  A hilly, forested area believed to be invasion proof  German plan almost worked but the British and French were able to remove their troops from the port at Dunkirk  Germans were still able to take Paris and forced the French to surrender  Occupied France- large Northern area controlled by the Germans  Vichy (Unoccupied) France- small southern section administered by the French (collaborated with Nazis)

10  After the fall of France, Germany turns to Britain  After Dunkirk, Winston Churchill abandoned appeasement  Germany’s air force (Luftwaffe) depended on destroying the British Royal Air Force and gaining control of the sky  Germany bombed civilian as well as military targets  Destroyed houses, factories, and churches  “the blitz”- month long bombing of London  Ultimately Britain held on and Hitler postponed the invasion of Britain indefinitely

11  At the beginning of the war, many Americans favored isolation  Great Depression forced Americans to focus on domestic affairs  Believed WWI was a deadly, expensive mistake  Nye Committee- researched whether big business conspired to enter WWI to make fortunes selling weapons  Lacked hard evidence but suggested bankers and manufacturers had pulled the U.S. into war  Further reinforced isolationist sentiments

12  Imposed certain restrictions on Americans during times of war  Forbidden from sailing on ships owned by nations at war  Forbidden to make loans or sell weapons and arms

13  FDR wanted to aid the Democratic nations  This act included a cash-and-carry provision  Allowed belligerent nation to buy goods and arms in the U.S. if they paid cash and carried them to their own ships  The British navy controlled the seas so the provision aided the allies  Americans still debated neutrality and FDR’s openly pro-Allies position

14  September 1940- Germany, Italy, Japan signed the Tripartite Pact to become allies  Congress passed the Selective Service Act, a peacetime draft, provided military training to troops and reserve troops  1940- Roosevelt is reelected to a third term  Once he is safely reelected, he increases his support of Britain

15  Roosevelt gave his “Four Freedoms” speech in January 1941  Spoke of freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear  Announced they were threatened by Nazi and Japanese militarism  Best way to stay out of conflict was to aid Britain

16  Roosevelt called for America to become the “great arsenal from democracy”  Lend-Lease act authorized Roosevelt to “sell, transfer title to, exchange, lease, lend, or otherwise dispose of, to any such government any defense article” whenever he thought “necessary in the interest of the defense of the United States”  An economic declaration of war against Germany and the Axis powers

17  August 1941, Prime minister Churchill and Roosevelt secretly met on a warship to discuss Britain's problems in the war and hopes for the world after Hitler’s defeat  The men signed the Atlantic Charter- a document that endorsed national self-determination and an international system of “general security”

18  Hitler noticed the deepening alliance between U.S. and Britain and the transfer of arms via ship  Fall 1941 Hitler orders German U-Boats (submarines) to attack American Ships  The attacks shocked and angered Americans and moved them closer to declaring war on Germany  Roosevelt ordered attacks on U-Boats  June 1941- Germany had gone to war with the Soviet Union  By November, war against the U.S. seemed inevitable

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